Myers' Psychology for AP*: AP Psychology Unit 3A&B Flashcards


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1

biological psychology

study of links between biological activity and psychological events

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neuron

nerve cell; basic building block of the nervous system

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sensory neurons

carry messages from the body's tissues and sensory organs inward to the brain and spinal cord for processing

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motor neurons

carry messages from the brain to the spinal cord to the muscles and glands

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interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

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dendrite

bushy fibers thats receive information and conduct it toward the cell body

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axon

passes the message along to other neurons or to muscles or glands

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myelin sheath

fatty, protective insulation that coats neurons and helps speed up impulses

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action potential

a brief electrical charge that travels down its axon

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threshold

combined signals trigger an action potential

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synapse

meeting point between neurons

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neurotransmitters

chemical messengers

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reuptake

the sending neuron reabsorbs the excuse neurotransmitters

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acetylcholine

enables muscle action, learning, and memory

Alzheimer's

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dopamine

influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion

schizophrenia

Parkinson's

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serotonin

affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal

depression ---> prozac

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norepinephrine

helps control alertness and arousal

undersupply---> depress mood

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GABA

major inhibitory neurotransmitter

undersupply----> seizures, tremors, and insomnia

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glutamate

major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory

oversupply ---> overstimulate the brain, producing migraines or seizures

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endorphins

feel good release

"runner's high"

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nervous system

speedy electrochemical communications network

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central nervous sytem (CNS)

included the brain and spinal cord

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peripheral nervous system (PNS)

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body

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nerves

bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs

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somatice nervous system

voluntary movement; skeletal muscles

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autonomic nervous system

controls glands and the muscle of our internal organs (heartbeat, digestions, etc)

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sympathetic nervous system

fight or flight mode

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parasympathetic nervous system

returns the body back to normal

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reflex

automatic responses to stimuli

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endocrine system

interconnect in the nervous system that is a second communication system. "slow" chemical communication system; set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

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hormones

chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissues, including the brain

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adrenal glands

at the top of the kidneys; help arouse the body in times of stress; release epinephrine and norepinephrine (fight or flight response)

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pituitary gland

a pea-size structure located in the core of the brain; releases hormones that influence growth

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lesion

tissue destruction

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electroencephalogram (EEG)

amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface

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CT scan

examines the brain by taking X-ray photos that can reveal brain damage

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PET scan

depicts brain activity by showing each brain area's consumption of its chemical fuel, the sugar glucose

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MRI

brain scans, the head is put in a strong magnetic field, which aligns the spinning atoms of brain molecules

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fMRI

can reveal the brain's functioning as well as its structure

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brainstem

brain's oldest and innermost region; responsible for several automatic survival functions

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medulla

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

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reticular formation

"netlike" finger-shaped network of neurons that extends from the spill cord right up to the thalamus; plays important role in controlling arousal

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thalamus

sitting at the top of the brainstem; the brain's sensory switchboard; directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortes and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

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cerebellum

"little brain"; deals with coordinating movement output and balance

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limbic system

includes: hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus; located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives

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amygdala

two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion

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hypothalamus

located just blow the thalamus; important link in the chain of command governing bodily maintenance (eating, drinking, body temp)

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cerebral cortex

a thin surface later of interconnected neural cells; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center

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glial cells

"glue cells"; support, nourish, and protect neurons

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frontal lobe

involved in speaking, muscles movements, planning, and judgment

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occipital lobes

in the back of the head; includes areas that receive visual information

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temporal lobes

just above the ears; receives auditory information

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motor cortex

controls voluntary movement

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sensory cortex

controls body touch and movement sensations (involuntary movement)

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association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex that are not included in primary motor or sensory functions; learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking

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aphasia

impaired use of language

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Broca's area

disrupts speaking

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Wernicke's area

disrupts understanding

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plasticity

the brain's ability to change; ability to modify itself after some types of damage

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neurogenesis

formation of new neurons

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corpus callosum

large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and caring messages between them

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split brain

a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers

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consciousness

awareness of ourselves and our environment

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cognitive neuroscience

the interdisciplinary study of the brain's activity liked with out mental processes

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dual processing

the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks