USC Bridge 2.5 proteins

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Compromise 20-30% of cell mass

have most varied functions of any molecules

structural, chemical (enzymes), motor-contraction (muscle)

contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur and phosphorus in their chemical structures

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Amino acids linked by peptide bonds

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Amino acids and peptide bonds

All proteins are made up of 20 types of amino acids:

-joined by covalent bonds called peptide bonds through dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis

- contain both an amine group and acid group

-can act as either acid or base

- differ by which of 20 different R groups is present

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Common nonpolar amino acids and their classification

Nonpolar aliphatic (have chains of C) amino acids: glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine

nonpolar amino acids: proline, methionine

nonpolar aromatic amino acids: phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan

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Common Polar amino acids

Serine, cysteine, threonine, asparagine, glutamine

positively charged polar amino acids: histidine, lysine, arginine

negatively charged polar amino acids: aspartic acid and glutamic acid.

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Level of protein structure

Primary structure of a protein: shows amino acids linked together one after the other

seconary structure are folded or spiral in a alpha helix. Usually held together by H bonds. beta sheet has interactions between amino acids in the linear structure on one side and then sometimes the proteins loop back on itself and the ends of the chains interact. Also held together by H bonds between the amino acids

tertiary structure is a 3D structure chain

quatinery structure-two of the same protein interacting together to accomplish the function

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A slight change in the primary structure of a protein affects its ability to function

The substitution of one amino acid for another will have a huge impact on the function of that protein ie: in Hgb with sickle cell disease


What is HS?

Hereditary spherocytosis. A mutation in the membrane protein amino acid sequence of a RBC that causes RBC to clump up. Results in anemia and splenomegaly

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Enzymes and enzymes activity

Enzymes- globular proteins that act as biological catalysts

catalysts regulate and increase speed of chemical reactions without getting used up in the process.

Lower the activation energy required to initiate a chemical reaction and leads to an increase in the speed of a reaction. Allows for millions of reactions per minute

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Example of how enzymes help a reaction to happen


The sequence of amino acids in a protein is called the______

Primary structure


A change in the amino acid sequence of a protein can result in a change to________

The primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure