USC Bridge 2.4 organic compounds, synthesis and hydrolysis
Organic molecules that contain carbon
Carbon is electoneutral, shares electrons, never gains or loses them. Forms four covalent bonds with other elements. Carbon is unique to living systems
major organic compounds are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
exceptions are CO2 and CO which are inorganic
Chains of similar units called monomers ( building blocks)
Dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis
Monomers are joined by removal of OH from one monomer and removal of H from the other at the site of bond formation.
Hydrolysis monomers are released by the addition of a water molecule, adding OH to one monomer and H to the other
Include sugars and starches
contain Carbon, hydrogen,and oxygen. Hydrogen and oxygen are in a ratio of 2:1
3 classes: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
Simple sugars Containing three to seven carbon atoms
general formula is: (CH2O)n. Where n = the number of carbon atoms
monomers of carbohydrates
important monosaccharides are: pentose sugars (ribose and deoxyribose) and hexose sugars (glucose/blood sugar)
Double sugars formed by dehydration synthesis of two monosaccharides. Ie: glucose+ fructose-> sucrose+ water.
important disaccharides are: sucrose, maltose, and lactose
Polymers of monosaccharides. Formed by dehydration synthesis of many monomers
not very soluable- don't dissolve in water
impostant polysaccharides are: starch carbohydrate storage form used by plants. Glycogen carbohydrate storage form used by animal
Contain C, H,O but less than in carbohydrates. Sometimes contain P
insoluble in water
main types: triglycerides (neutral fats) or neutral fats, phospholipids, steroids, eicosanoids.
called fats when solid and oils when liquid
composed of three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule
maIn functions: energy storage, insulation, protection
Triglycerides can be constructed of:
Saturated fatty acids- all carbons are linked via single covalent bonds resulting in a molecule with the maximum number of H atoms (saturated with H).
Solid at room temperature ( animal fats, butter)
Unsaturated fatty acids
One or more carbons are linked via double bonds resulting in reduced H atoms (unsaturated)
liquid at room temperature ie: plant oils like olive oil
trans fats- modified hydrogenated oils- unhealthy
omega 3 fatty acids - heart healthy
Modified triglycerides- glycerol and two fatty acids plus a phosphorous containing group.
Head and tail regions have different properties. Head is a polar region and is attracted to water. Tails are nonpolar and repelled by water
important in cell membrane structure
Consist of four interlocking ring structures
common steroids: cholesterol, vitamin D, steroid hormone, and bile salts
most important steroid is cholesterol. The building block of vitamin D, steroid synthesis, and bile salt synthesis. Important in cell plasma membrane structure
4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings form a steroid ie: cholesterol which is the basis of all steroids formed in the body
Sucrose is a ________ molecule?
What type of lipid is made into steroids?