USC Bridge 2.4 organic compounds, synthesis and hydrolysis

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1

Organic molecules that contain carbon

Carbon is electoneutral, shares electrons, never gains or loses them. Forms four covalent bonds with other elements. Carbon is unique to living systems

major organic compounds are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

exceptions are CO2 and CO which are inorganic

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Polymers

Organic molecules

Chains of similar units called monomers ( building blocks)

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Dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis

Monomers are joined by removal of OH from one monomer and removal of H from the other at the site of bond formation.

Hydrolysis monomers are released by the addition of a water molecule, adding OH to one monomer and H to the other

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Carbohydrates

Include sugars and starches

contain Carbon, hydrogen,and oxygen. Hydrogen and oxygen are in a ratio of 2:1

3 classes: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides

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Monosaccharides

Simple sugars Containing three to seven carbon atoms

general formula is: (CH2O)n. Where n = the number of carbon atoms

monomers of carbohydrates

important monosaccharides are: pentose sugars (ribose and deoxyribose) and hexose sugars (glucose/blood sugar)

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Disaccharides

Double sugars formed by dehydration synthesis of two monosaccharides. Ie: glucose+ fructose-> sucrose+ water.

important disaccharides are: sucrose, maltose, and lactose

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Polysaccharides

Polymers of monosaccharides. Formed by dehydration synthesis of many monomers

not very soluable- don't dissolve in water

impostant polysaccharides are: starch carbohydrate storage form used by plants. Glycogen carbohydrate storage form used by animal

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Lipids

Contain C, H,O but less than in carbohydrates. Sometimes contain P

insoluble in water

main types: triglycerides (neutral fats) or neutral fats, phospholipids, steroids, eicosanoids.

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Triglyceride

Neutral fats

called fats when solid and oils when liquid

composed of three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule

maIn functions: energy storage, insulation, protection

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Triglycerides can be constructed of:

Saturated fatty acids- all carbons are linked via single covalent bonds resulting in a molecule with the maximum number of H atoms (saturated with H).

Solid at room temperature ( animal fats, butter)

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Unsaturated fatty acids

One or more carbons are linked via double bonds resulting in reduced H atoms (unsaturated)

liquid at room temperature ie: plant oils like olive oil

trans fats- modified hydrogenated oils- unhealthy

omega 3 fatty acids - heart healthy

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Phospholipids

Modified triglycerides- glycerol and two fatty acids plus a phosphorous containing group.

Head and tail regions have different properties. Head is a polar region and is attracted to water. Tails are nonpolar and repelled by water

important in cell membrane structure

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Steroids

Consist of four interlocking ring structures

common steroids: cholesterol, vitamin D, steroid hormone, and bile salts

most important steroid is cholesterol. The building block of vitamin D, steroid synthesis, and bile salt synthesis. Important in cell plasma membrane structure

4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings form a steroid ie: cholesterol which is the basis of all steroids formed in the body

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Sucrose is a ________ molecule?

Disaccharide

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What type of lipid is made into steroids?

Cholesterol