USC Bridge 2.3 cytoplasm

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1

Cytoplasm

Cell forming material. All cellular material that is located between the plasma membrane and the nucleus

composed of:

  • cytosol
  • inclusions
  • organelles
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Cytosol

Gel like solution made up of water and soluable molecules such as proteins, salts, sugars.

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Inclusions

Insoluble molecules, vary depending on the cell type. Ie: stored nutrients like glycogen in liver and muscle cells, lipid droplets present in fat cells, pigment or melanin, water containing vacuoles, crystals, and skin and hair cells.

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Organelles

Metabolic machinery structures of cell. Each with specialized function. Either membranous or non membranous

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Cytoplasmic organelles

Membranes allow compartmentalization which is crucial to cell function

  • membranous: mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golfing apparatus, peroxisomes, lysosomes
  • Nonmembranous: ribosomes, cytoskeleton, centrioles
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Mitochondria

Called the power plant of cells. Produce most of the cells energy molecules (ATP) via aerobic (oxygen-requiring) cellular respiration. Muscle cells have a lot of mitochondria cells

enclosed by double membranes. Has many folds called cristae

contain their own DNA, RNA, and ribosomes

resemble bacteria capable of same type of cell division that bacteria use called fission

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Endoplasmic reticulum

(ER) Consists of series of parallel, interconnected cisterns- flattened membranous tubes that enclose fluid-filled interiors.

Is continuous with the nuclear membrane

rough ER is studded with ribosomes to manufacture proteins secreted from cells

smooth ER is continuous with rough ER and makes lipids (fats)

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Golgi apparatus

Principal traffic director for cellular proteins.

Stacked and flattened membranous cistern sacs

modifies and packages proteins and lipids received from rough ER

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Sequence of events in protein synthesis

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Peroxisomes

Membranous sacs containing powerful detoxifying substances that neutralize toxins

  • free radicals-toxic, highly reactive molecules that are natural by-products of cellular metabolism. Can cause havoc to cell if not detoxified
  • two main detoxifiers: oxidase and catalase that converts H2O2 to H2O

peroxisomes also play a role in breakdown and synthesis of fatty acids

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Lysosomes

  • Spherical membranous bags containing digestive enzymes. Considered safe sites because they isolate digestion from the rest of the cell
  • digest ingested bacteria, viruses and toxins
  • degrade nonfunctional organelles
  • intracellular release in injured causes cells to digest themselves (autolysis)
  • release ionic calcium from bones
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Lysosomal storage disease

Result when one or more lysosomal digestive enzymes are mutated and do not function properly

tay sachs disease

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Nucleus

The control center of the cell. Have pores to allow transport in and out of the nucleus

Largest organelle

contains genetic instructions for synthesis of nearly all cellular proteins

most cells are uninucleated, but some can be multinucleated in ex: are skeletal muscle, some bone cells, liver cells

RBC are anucleated

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Chromatin

Strands of DNA, histone proteins and some RNA in the nucleus

chromosomes are compacts chromatin

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What cell does not possess a nucleus at maturity?

RBC

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In a cell proteins are synthesized at the _______

Ribosomes

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In a cell ATP is produced by______

Mitochondria