USC Bridge 2.1 cells: the living units

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Cell theory

A cell is the basic structure and functional unit of life

The activity of an organism depends on the individual and combined activities of its cells.

Structure and function are complementary-

life has cellular basis- cells arise from other pre existing cells

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Cell diversity

Over 200 different types that vary in shapes, size and function.

Cells are composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen and trace elements

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Molecular tree of life

3 major classes: Eubacteria, archaea, eucarya

differentiated by DNA neucleotide sequence rRNA sequence.

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Prokaryotic bacteria cell

archae bacteria cell

Single called organism that does not have a membrane bound nucleus, mitochondria or membrane bound organelle

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Be familiar with: capsule, cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nuclear area (nucleoid containing DNA), ribosomes, pili, and flagella

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Human cells three major components:

  1. Plasma membrane- lipid flexible outer boundary
  2. cytoplasm- intercellular fluid contains organelles
  3. nucleus- DNA containing control center
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Eukaryotic animal cell:

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Nucleus

Contains genetic material (chromatin) and surrounded by nuclear envelope

where DNA will be

the control center

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Endoplasmic reticulum

Folded membrane where much protein synthesis happens

alot of proteins are made and seated from the cell

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Golgi apparatus

Function in secretion and transport of proteins

the control center to where proteins will be delivered

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Mitochondria

Structure specialized for oxidative metabolism

where energy is generated

the powerhouse of the cell

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Lysosomes

Involved in digestion

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Eukaryotic plant cells- have all the same as animal cells above and chloroplasts and vacuoles.

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Chloroplasts

The energy generating sites for plants

photosynthesis

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Vacuoles

Involved in intracellular secretion, storage of water, and digesting molecules

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Basic functional unit of living organisms is:

The cell

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3 main components of eukaryotic cells include the:

Plasma membrane

nucleus

cytoplasm