USC Bridge 1.3 chemical bonds

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1

Chemical bonds

When atoms combine with other atoms they are held together by chemical bonds.

2

Electron shells

Electrons form the electron cloud stouthearted nucleus of an atom occupy regions of space

hold a specific number of electrons

closer to the nucleus the energy level is stronger than the electron shells further from the nucleus

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Octet rule

Except for the first shell which is full with two electrons, atoms interact in a manner to have eight electrons in their outermost energy level or valence shell.

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Chemically inert elements

Unreactive and stable elements because the outermost energy level/ valence shell is completely filled with electrons

noble gases: i.e. Helium or neon

5

Chemically reactive elements

Outermost energy level is not fully occupied by electrons

tend to gain, lose, or share electrons with other atoms to achieve stability- ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bond formation

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Ionic bonds

A chemical bond between atoms formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another

because opposite charges attract these ions tend to stay close together forming an ionic bond

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Electron acceptor

Acquires a net negative charge and is called a anion

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Electron donor

Acquires a net positive charge and is called a cation

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Covalent bond

Electrons are shared so each atom is able to fill its outer electron shell at least part of the time.

Can be single, double or triple covalent bond.

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Polar covalent bond

Unequal sharing of electrons. Slight negative charge at one end and a slight positive charge at the other end.

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Non polar covalent bond

Equal sharing of electrons. Charge balanced among atoms

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...

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Electronegativity

Small atoms with six or seven valence shell electrons attract electrons very strongly

electron hungry

O, N, and Cl

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Electropositive

Atoms with only one or two valence shell electrons

their electron attracting ability is low so they lose their valance shell electrons

K and Na

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Dipole

Two poles of charge also known as a polar molecule

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Hydrogen bonds

More like attractions than true bonds

form when hydrogen atoms are attracted by electronegative atoms and a bridge is formed between them

common between dipoles such as water

responsible for water molecules to cling together forming surface tension

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Most important determinant of an atoms bonding behavior is:

The number of valence shell electrons

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When atoms gain electrons the become ________

charged

negatively

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Covalent bonds occur when:

Electrons are shared between atoms

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Water is a polar molecule. Oxygen is electronegative and hydrogen is electropositve. This means that oxygen pulls electrons away from hydrogen and becomes more:_________

Negative