USC Bridge 1.1 matter and properties of elements

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1

Energy

The capacity to do work or put matter into motion.

2 types:

-potential and Kinetic.

2

Matter

Anything that has mass and takes up space

3

Atom

  • The smallest unit of matter of a particular element
  • composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
  • Charge of an atom should be neutral
4

Elements

An atom that cannot be broken down into parts by normal chemical means.

5

Protons

+ charged atoms

1 atomic mass unit (AMU)

6

Neutrons

Neutrally charged atoms

1 atomic mass unit

7

Electrons

Negatively charged atoms

no atomic mass unit

8

98% of the bodies weight is:

C- carbon

H- hydrogen

O- oxygen

N- nitrogen

P- phosphorus

S- sulfur

9

Major ions that contribute to physiological function, can be called salts:

Na- sodium

K- potassium

Cl- chloride

Ca- calcium

Mg- magnesium

H- hydrogen

10

Metals that help enzymes function:

( can be known as proteins that help reactions go)

Fe- iron

Cu- copper

Zn- zinc

11

Planetary module

Oversimplified outdated model that incorrectly depicts a fixed circular electron path around the nucleus

12

Orbital model

Current model used by chemists which depicts probable regions of greatest electron density (electron cloud)

useful in predicting the chemical behavior of atoms

13

Atomic number of an element

Equal to the number of protons in the nucleus

14

Atomic mass number

The number of protons + neutrons

15
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Isotopes

Structural variations of elements that differ in the number of neutrons they contain

16

Atomic weight

The average of mass numbers of all isotopes of an element

17
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Radioisotopes

  • Spontaneous decay of atoms (Radioactivity) heavier isotopes are less stable and release particles or rays from the nucleus
  • Similar chemistry to stable isotopes so they accumulate in the body where the typical isotope would end up
  • can be detected by scanning
  • can be damaging to living tissue
18

An atoms nucleus contains:

Protons and neutrons

19

The four elements that compromise 96% of living matter are:

Carbon, hydrogen, sodium, and oxygen

20

Energy is not an example of:

Matter