USC bridge Module 1. 5 inorganic compounds

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1

Bichemistry

The study of chemical composition and reactions of living matter.

all chemicals are either organic or inorganic and are essential for life.

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Inorganic compounds

Water, salts, and many acids and bases. Do not contain carbon.

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Organic compounds

Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids.

Contain carbon.

usually large and Covalently bonded

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Water

Most abundant inorganic compound. Accounts for 60-80% of the volume of living cells.

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Properties of water

High heat capacity

high heat of vaporization

polar solvent properties

reactivity

Cushioning

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Solvent properties of water

Dissolves salts- separates to cations and anions

dissolves other polar molecules

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Hydrophilic

Like Water. Polar molecules-ions or molecules that have nitrogen or oxygen dissolve in water.

i.e.: alcohol

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Waters non-polar properties

Will not dissolve nonpolar molecules like fats/lipids.

chains of molecules (Hydrcarbon chains)

I.e.: cooking oil

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Electrolytes

Salts that come apart in a solution into their component ions. I.e.: Na, K, Ca.

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Hydrophobic

Water fearing.

i.e.: cooking oil

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Homoeostatic imbalance

Ionic balance is vital for homeostasis.

Kidneys play a big role in maintaining proper balance of electrolytes.

if electrolyte balance is disrupted, virtually all organ systems cease to function.

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Osmosis

Passive diffusion or movement of solvent, such as water, across a selectively permeable membrane.

Occurs when water, or other solvent, concentration is different on the two sides of the membrane

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Water diffuses through plasma membranes through:

Lipid bilayer- some polar water molecules can sneak past nonpolar phospholipid tails.

aquaporins (AQP)- specific water channels that can get water across quickly.

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Osmolarity

Measure of total concentration of solute particles.

water moves by osmosis from areas of low solute (high water) concentration to high areas of solute (low water) concentration.

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solute particles diffuse to the other side because the membrane is permeable to both solute and water.

Moves down its concentration gradient until equilibrium is reached.

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Selectively permeability

Solute molecules are prevented from moving but water moves by osmosis.

Volume increases in the compartment with the higher osmolarity.

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Hydrostatic pressure

Pressure of water inside cell pushing on membrane

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Osmotic pressure

Tendency of water to move into the cell by osmosis.

The more solutes inside a cell the higher the osmotic pressure.

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dehydration

water leaves a cell causing it to shrink

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Change in cell volume can disrupt cell function especially in:

Brain cells or Neurons

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Tonicity

The ability of an outside solution to change the shape or the tone of the cell based on water movement across cellular membranes.

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Isotonic solutions

Cells retain their normal size and shape because the same concentration of solute/water is inside the cell as outside the cell.

Number of dissolved solutes is the same on both side of the cell membrane.

IV solutions: NaCl, D5W, LR

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Hypertonic solution

Cells lose water by osmosis and shrink.

Higher concentration of solutes outside the cell causes water to leave the cell and shrink or cremates or dehydrates.

Hypertonic IV solutions can be given to edematous patients to pull water back into the blood. Is: D5 NaCl.

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Hypotonic

Outside the cell is a lower concentration of dissolved solutes. Cells take on water by osmosis until they burst or lyse the membrane.

IV: 2.5%D5 rarely given.

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Hypertonic solutions are rarely given, best to rehydrate with PO apple juice.

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Waters unique properties like high heat capacity, high heat of vaporization, and universal solvent can be attributed to:

Ability to form hydrogen bonds

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Which type of bond is formed when elections are shared unequally between atoms

Polar covalent