USC bridge Module 1. 5 inorganic compounds
The study of chemical composition and reactions of living matter.
all chemicals are either organic or inorganic and are essential for life.
Water, salts, and many acids and bases. Do not contain carbon.
Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids.
usually large and Covalently bonded
Most abundant inorganic compound. Accounts for 60-80% of the volume of living cells.
Properties of water
High heat capacity
high heat of vaporization
polar solvent properties
Solvent properties of water
Dissolves salts- separates to cations and anions
dissolves other polar molecules
Like Water. Polar molecules-ions or molecules that have nitrogen or oxygen dissolve in water.
Waters non-polar properties
Will not dissolve nonpolar molecules like fats/lipids.
chains of molecules (Hydrcarbon chains)
I.e.: cooking oil
Salts that come apart in a solution into their component ions. I.e.: Na, K, Ca.
i.e.: cooking oil
Ionic balance is vital for homeostasis.
Kidneys play a big role in maintaining proper balance of electrolytes.
if electrolyte balance is disrupted, virtually all organ systems cease to function.
Passive diffusion or movement of solvent, such as water, across a selectively permeable membrane.
Occurs when water, or other solvent, concentration is different on the two sides of the membrane
Water diffuses through plasma membranes through:
Lipid bilayer- some polar water molecules can sneak past nonpolar phospholipid tails.
aquaporins (AQP)- specific water channels that can get water across quickly.
Measure of total concentration of solute particles.
water moves by osmosis from areas of low solute (high water) concentration to high areas of solute (low water) concentration.
solute particles diffuse to the other side because the membrane is permeable to both solute and water.
Moves down its concentration gradient until equilibrium is reached.
Solute molecules are prevented from moving but water moves by osmosis.
Volume increases in the compartment with the higher osmolarity.
Pressure of water inside cell pushing on membrane
Tendency of water to move into the cell by osmosis.
The more solutes inside a cell the higher the osmotic pressure.
water leaves a cell causing it to shrink
Change in cell volume can disrupt cell function especially in:
Brain cells or Neurons
The ability of an outside solution to change the shape or the tone of the cell based on water movement across cellular membranes.
Cells retain their normal size and shape because the same concentration of solute/water is inside the cell as outside the cell.
Number of dissolved solutes is the same on both side of the cell membrane.
IV solutions: NaCl, D5W, LR
Cells lose water by osmosis and shrink.
Higher concentration of solutes outside the cell causes water to leave the cell and shrink or cremates or dehydrates.
Hypertonic IV solutions can be given to edematous patients to pull water back into the blood. Is: D5 NaCl.
Outside the cell is a lower concentration of dissolved solutes. Cells take on water by osmosis until they burst or lyse the membrane.
IV: 2.5%D5 rarely given.
Hypertonic solutions are rarely given, best to rehydrate with PO apple juice.
Waters unique properties like high heat capacity, high heat of vaporization, and universal solvent can be attributed to:
Ability to form hydrogen bonds
Which type of bond is formed when elections are shared unequally between atoms