Medical Terminology Chapter 7

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1

upper respiratory tract

nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx and trachea

2

lower respiratory tract

bronchial tree and lungs

3

throracic cavity

rib cage

4

nasal septurm

wall of cartilage that divides the nose

5

cilia

thin hairs located just inside the nostrils, filters incoming air to remove debris

6

mucous membranes

line the nose, digestive tract, reproductive tract and urinary systems

7

mucus

slipper secretion produced by mucous membranes

8

paranasal sinuses

air filled cavities lined with mucous membranes located in the bones of the skull

9

frontal sinuses

located in the frontal bone just above the eyebrow

10

sphenoid sinuses

located in the sphenoid bone behind the eye

11

maxillary sinuses

largest of the paranasal sinuses located in the maxillary bones under the eyes

12

ethmoid sinuses

loctated in the ethmoid bones

13

pharynx

throat

14

larynx

voice box

15

thyroid cartilage

adams apple

16

epiglottis

lid like structure located at the base of the tongue.

17

trachea

wind pipe

18

bronchi

branch out from the trachea and convey air into the lungs

19

alveoli

air sacs small grapelike clusters found at the end of each bronchile

20

pulmonary

pertaining to or affecting the lungs

21

surfactant

detergent like substance produced by alveoli reduces tension in the lungs

22

right lung

larger, 3 lobes

23

left lung

smaller, 2 lobes

24

mediastinum

the middle section of the chest cavity located between the lungs

25

pleura

thin, moist, slipper membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs and lines the inner surface of the thoracic cavity

26

parietal pleura

outer layer of the pleura, lines the walls of the thoracic cavity, covers the diaphragm, forms the sac that contains the lungs

27

parietal

relating to the walls of a cavity

28

visceral pleura

the inner layer of pleura that covers each lung

29

pleural cavity

fluid filled space between the parietal and visceral pleural membranes

30

diaphragm

dome shaped sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen

31

phrenic nerves

stimulate the diaphragm

32

respiration

breathing, the exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide

33

external respiration

bringing air in and out of the lungs from the outside environment

34

internal repiration

the exchange of gases within the cells of the blood and tissues

35

thoracic sergeon

performs operations on the organs inside the thorax, chest, including the heart, lungs, and esophagus

36

COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

group of lung diseases in which the bronchial airflow is obstructed.

37

COPD -B

Chronic bronchitis

38

emphysema COPD -A

progressive long term loss of lung function

39

asthma

chronic inflammatory disease of the bronchial tubes

40

airway inflammation

swelling and clogging of the bronchial tubes with mucus

41

bronchospasm

contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles

42

croup

acute respiratory infection in children and infants

43

diptheria

acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract

44

epistaxis

nose bleed

45

pertussis

whooping cough, contagius bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract

46

paroxysmal

sudden or spasmlike

47

rhinorrhea

runny nose

48

sinusitis

inflammation of the sinuses

49

pharyngitis

inflammation of the pharynx sore throat

50

laryngospasm

sudden spasmatic closing of the larynx

51

aphonia

loss of the the ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds

52

dysphonia

difficulty in speaking

53

laryngitis

inflammation of the larynx

54

tracheorrhagia

bleeding from the mucous membranes of the trachea

55

bronchiectasis

permanent dilation of the bronchi, caused by chronic infection and inflammation

56

bronchorrhea

excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi

57

pleurisy

inflammation of the pleura

58

pleurodynia

sharp pain that occurs when the inflamed membranes rub against each other with each inhalation

59

pleural effusion

excess accumulation of fluid in the pleural space

60

effusion

the escape of fluid from blood or lymphatic vessels into the tissues or into a body cavity

61

pyrothorax

pus in the pleural cavity between the layers of the pleural membrane

62

pyo

pus

63

empyema

collection of pus in a body cavity

64

hemothorax

blood in a pleural cavity

65

pheumothorax

accumulation of air in a pleural space

66

acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS

lung condition usually caused by trauma, pheumonia, smoke, or fumes

67

sepsis

systemic bacterial infection in the bloodstream

68

atelectasis

collapsed lung the incomplete expansion of part or all of a lung due to a blockage in the air passages

69

pulmonary edema

accumulation of fluid in the lung tissues, especially the aveoli

70

pulmonary embolism

sudden blockage of a pulmonary artery by a foreign matter or by an embolus that has formed in a leg or pelvic region

71

pheumorragia

bleeding from the lungs

72

latent

present but not active

73

pneumonia

serious inflammation of the lungs in which the lungs fill with pus

74

aspiration pneumonia

when a foreign substance is inhaled into the lung

75

pneumocystis pneumonia

opportunistic infections cause by yeast like fungus

76

interstitial lung disease

200 disorders that cause inflammation and scarring of the alveoli and their supporting structures

77

pulmonary fibrosis

progressive formation of scar tissue in the lung resulting in decreased lung capacity and increased difficulty in breathing

78

pneumoconiosis

any fibrosis of the lung tissue cause by dust in the lungs after prolonged environmental contact

79

anthrocosis

caused by coal dust in the lungs

80

cystic fibrosis

life threatening genetic disorder where the lungs and pancreas are clogged with abnormally thick mucus

81

eupnea

easy or normal breathing

82

apnea

temporary absence of spontaneous respiration

83

bradypnea

abnormally slow rate of respiration usually of less than 10 breaths a minute

84

tachypnea

abnormally rapid rate of respiration usually more than 20 breaths per minute

85

cheyne stokes respiration

irregular pattern of breathing alternating rapid or shallow respiration followed by apnea

86

dyspnea

difficult or labored breathing / shortness of breath

87

hyperpnea

breathing that is deeper and more rapid than is normal at rest

88

hypopnea

shallow or slow respiration

89

hyperventilation

an abnormally rapid rate of deep respiration that is usually associated with anxiety

90

expectoration

the act of caughing up and spitting out saliva, mucus or other body fluid

91

expector

to cough up

92

ation

means state or action

93

hemoptysia

expectoration of blood or blood stained sputum

94

anoxia

absence of oxygen from the bodys tissues and organs even though there is an adequate flow of blood

95

hypoxia

having deficient oxygen levels in the bodys tissues and organs

96

asphyxia

loss of consciousness that occurs when the body cannot get the oxygen it needs to function

97

hypercapnia

abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood

98

hypoxemia

the condition of having low oxygen levels in the blood, usually due to respiratory disorders or heart conditions

99

respiratory failure

condition in which the levels of oxygen in the blood becomes dangerously low or carbon dioxide become dangerously high