what is the heart
muscular pump that pushes blood into hollow vessels
what are blood vessels
connected to the heart, deliver blood to body
what does the cardiovascular system deliver ?
fresh nutrients, hormones, and electrolytes
the cardiovascular system constantly circulates blood
what does the cardiovascular system removes from tissues
metabolic wastes like nitrogenous waste and CO2
right side of the heart is the
the right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs
left side of the heart is the
the left side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood to body
ventricles contract and eject equal amounts of blood to each system
the pulmonary system is longer
the systemic circuit is longer
which side of the myocardium is thickest ?
the systemic circuit has more resistance to blood flow
the left ventricle must push harder to get its blood out
where is the heart located?
in the mediastinum
what is the size of the heart?
a fist size
how much does the heart weigh?
less than 1lb (hollow)
2/3 of the mass of the heart lies right of the body midline
2/3 of the mass of the heart lies left of the body midline
the broad base of the heart points toward the right shoulder
the apex of the heart points toward the right hip
the narrow apex of the heart points toward the left hip
what is the apical pulse ?
tapping felt when heart contracts
what causes the apical pulse?
when the apex touches wall of chest
what happens during apical pulse?
heart rotates forward during systole
where can the apical pulse be felt?
at the 5th intercostal space
what is the pericardium ?
a double walled sac that encloses the heart
what are the two layers of the pericardium ?
fibrous layer and serous layer
which layer of the pericardium is the superficial layer ?
what is the fibrous layer composed of?
tough dense irregular connective tissue
what is the function of the fibrous layer
protection, anchor, and prevent overfilling
what are the two layers of the serous layer of the pericardium ?
parietal layer and visceral layer
what layer of the serous layers of the pericardium is superficial
which layer of the serous layer of the pericardium is deep?
visceral layer =
what is the pericardial cavity
space between the two serous layers of pericardium
the pericardium is filled with
what is the function of the pericardial cavity
what is the condition where the pericardium is inflammed
what happens during pericarditis
roughens serous membrane surfaces, heart rubs against pericardium as it beats
what are the symptoms of pericarditis
creeks sounds in stethoscope and deep pain over sternum
what condition can be thought of when there are creek sound in the stethoscope ?
what condition can be thought of when there are deep pains over sternum ?
what condition can be thought of when pericarditis is prolonged
what is cardiac tamponade
a heart plug
what condition can be thought of when large amounts of fluid accumulates in pericardial cavity?
what condition can be thought of when the heart is compressed and it interferes with beating
how can you treat cardiac tamponade
how is a cardiocentesis performed
drain fluid with catheter
the wall of the heart is made of 3 layers
epicardium is the most _______ layer
visceral layer of serous layer
the epicardium is infiltrated by what
fat with aging
the myocardium is the ______ layer of the heart wall
the myocardium is the most of heart mass
the thickness of the myocardium does not varies in different parts of the heart
what cell is the myocardium mostly made of
cardiac muscle cells
the function of myocardium
endocardium ______ layer
where is the endocardium located
lining of chambers and valves
the endocardium is not continuous with the lining of blood vessels
what color is the endocardium?
what is the endocardium made of
what is smooth endothelium
squamous epithelial cells on layer of connective tissue
what is the function of the endocardium
reduce friction between blood and heart
what is the function of the epicardium?
what is the treatment of pericarditis ?