18.1

Helpfulness: +1
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1

what is the heart

muscular pump that pushes blood into hollow vessels

2

what are blood vessels

connected to the heart, deliver blood to body

3

what does the cardiovascular system deliver ?

fresh nutrients, hormones, and electrolytes

4

the cardiovascular system constantly circulates blood

true

5

what does the cardiovascular system removes from tissues

metabolic wastes like nitrogenous waste and CO2

6

right side of the heart is the

pulmonary pump

7

the right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs

true

8

left side of the heart is the

systemic pump

9

the left side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood to body

true

10

ventricles contract and eject equal amounts of blood to each system

true

11

the pulmonary system is longer

false

12

the systemic circuit is longer

true

13

which side of the myocardium is thickest ?

left ventricle

14

the systemic circuit has more resistance to blood flow

true

15

the left ventricle must push harder to get its blood out

true

16

where is the heart located?

in the mediastinum

17

mediastinum aka

thoracic cavity

18

what is the size of the heart?

a fist size

19

how much does the heart weigh?

less than 1lb (hollow)

20

2/3 of the mass of the heart lies right of the body midline

false

21

2/3 of the mass of the heart lies left of the body midline

true

22

the broad base of the heart points toward the right shoulder

true

23

the apex of the heart points toward the right hip

false

24

the narrow apex of the heart points toward the left hip

true

25

what is the apical pulse ?

tapping felt when heart contracts

26

what causes the apical pulse?

when the apex touches wall of chest

27

what happens during apical pulse?

heart rotates forward during systole

28

where can the apical pulse be felt?

at the 5th intercostal space

29

what is the pericardium ?

a double walled sac that encloses the heart

30

what are the two layers of the pericardium ?

fibrous layer and serous layer

31

which layer of the pericardium is the superficial layer ?

fibrous layer

32

what is the fibrous layer composed of?

tough dense irregular connective tissue

33

what is the function of the fibrous layer

protection, anchor, and prevent overfilling

34

what are the two layers of the serous layer of the pericardium ?

parietal layer and visceral layer

35

what layer of the serous layers of the pericardium is superficial

parietal

36

which layer of the serous layer of the pericardium is deep?

visceral

37

visceral layer =

epicardium

38

what is the pericardial cavity

space between the two serous layers of pericardium

39

the pericardium is filled with

serous fluid

40

what is the function of the pericardial cavity

reduce friction

41

what is the condition where the pericardium is inflammed

pericarditis

42

what happens during pericarditis

roughens serous membrane surfaces, heart rubs against pericardium as it beats

43

what are the symptoms of pericarditis

creeks sounds in stethoscope and deep pain over sternum

44

what condition can be thought of when there are creek sound in the stethoscope ?

pericarditis

45

what condition can be thought of when there are deep pains over sternum ?

pericarditis

46

what condition can be thought of when pericarditis is prolonged

cardiac tamponade

47

what is cardiac tamponade

a heart plug

48

what condition can be thought of when large amounts of fluid accumulates in pericardial cavity?

cardiac tamponade

49

what condition can be thought of when the heart is compressed and it interferes with beating

cardiac tamponade

50

how can you treat cardiac tamponade

cardiocentesis

51

how is a cardiocentesis performed

drain fluid with catheter

52

the wall of the heart is made of 3 layers

true

53

epicardium is the most _______ layer

superficial

54

epicardium =

visceral layer of serous layer

55

the epicardium is infiltrated by what

fat with aging

56

the myocardium is the ______ layer of the heart wall

middle

57

the myocardium is the most of heart mass

true

58

the thickness of the myocardium does not varies in different parts of the heart

false

59

what cell is the myocardium mostly made of

cardiac muscle cells

60

the function of myocardium

contract heart

61

endocardium ______ layer

inner

62

where is the endocardium located

lining of chambers and valves

63

the endocardium is not continuous with the lining of blood vessels

false

64

what color is the endocardium?

glistening white

65

what is the endocardium made of

smooth endothelium

66

what is smooth endothelium

squamous epithelial cells on layer of connective tissue

67

what is the function of the endocardium

reduce friction between blood and heart

68

what is the function of the epicardium?

reduce friction

69

what is the treatment of pericarditis ?

anti-inflammatories