3 Types of Speeches
Speaking at a personal event i.e. toast at a wedding, introducing a guest speaker
Speaking at a job that requires this skill. About 70% of jobs require public speaking. i.e. teacher, lawyer, TV/News presenter.
Participate in democracy (candidates speeches) via active listening. Causes such as women's rights, segregation came about because of public speeches.
- Encoding - taking an idea and associating it with words, in order to convey a message.
- Decoding - reverse of encoding, turning words into imagery in order to understand the message.
People in the interaction or speech setting - sending/receiving messages.
Include nonverbal/verbal behaviors enacted by communication that are interpreted by others.
The means through which the message travels.
Anything that interferes w/message transmission and reception.
3 types :
Bodily process that interferes w/transmission or reception i.e. hunger, temperature, sickness
Mental or emotional states that interferes w/transmission or reception i.e. heartbreak, parent died
Actual Noise that interferes w/transmission or reception i.e. chattering, lawn mower outside
The setting in which the speech or interactions take place.
3 Purposes for Speaking in Public
1. Inform your audience
2. Persuade - reinforce or chance audience's beliefs, attitudes or values
11 Speaking Competencies
1. Useful topic - that is beneficial to audience
2. Engaging Intro - Attention getter/Preview
3. Clear organization
4. Well supported ideas - compelling material
5. Closure in conclusion
6. Clear vivid language
7. Suitable vocal expression
8. Corresponding nonverbals
9. Adaptation to Audience
10. Convincing persuasion
11. Adept use of visual aids
Parts of a Speech Introduction - 2
1. Attention Getter - means of captivating the audience's attention. - 2 sentences or more.
2. Preview - share the purpose and main points of your speech
Phrases or words on note cards should be in ......
When do audience members begin to evaluate speakers?
Types of Attention Getters
From whom should use quotations from?
Towards the end of the speech how do you let the audience know you are almost done?
Slow down the rate of the speech
3 examples of speaking or presenting from book
- Presentation in a history class
- Answering questions infront of an interview panel
- Dinner w/ in-laws - father is a marine
What is a common fear in society?
Fear of public speaking - about 20% of the population is affected by this
What does CA stand for?
Communication Apprehension - or fear of public speaking
3 types of CA
1. Trait-Anxiety - related to a person's personality i.e. shy or introverts
2. State-Anxiety - Anxiety related to external stressor or negative experience - fear of public embarassment "You don't want to be evaluated"
3. Scrutiny/Fear - fear of being watched or observed.
Turning nervousness into something positive - motivation
What are ways to reduce nervousness?
- Prepare Well
- Visualize success
- Breathe and release
- Avoid using gimmicks
- Minimize what your memorize
prepare, prepare, prepare - i.e. Michael Jordan: practices with sprints to simulate the environment of the real game.
Imagine yourself doing well in a speech
Avoid Using Gimmicks
- Don't imagine audience naked or in bunny ears
Breathe and Release
Part of systematic desensitization:
- Imagine nervousness in a bubble
- Draw energy to high point
- Release energy deliberately
Become conversant - be ready to discuss your topic
Don't memorize your entire speech.
Practice out loud.