Microbiology Chapter 1

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Introduction, scope of micro, history; classification of microorganisms; functional anatomy of procaryotes; staining; microbial growth & nutrition
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1

Microbiology

study of micro-organisms

2

Micro-organisms

living, mostly unicellular microscopic organisms

3

Disease

an abnormal state in which the body is not properly adjusted or incapable of performing normal functions

4

Medical microbiology

the branch of microbiology; dealing with human pathogens (disease causing agents)

5

Scope of course

1. Study of different groups of microbes 2. Pathogenic properties of microbes

3. host defenses 4. control of microbial growth

5. surgery infections diseases 6. importance of lab course.

6

Procaryotes

Characteristics:

Primitive cells, no nuclear membrane, no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles.

Cells divide by binary fission.

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Groups of Procaryotes:

Bacteria, Mycoplasmas, Rickettsia, Chlamydia

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Bacteria

found in all natural environment on humans

can be pathogen

exists in 3 shapes: Cocci (round), Bacillus(rod), Spiral

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Mycoplasmas

smaller in size than bacteria

shapes are atypical, no cell wall

cause respiratory & urogenital infections in humans (bladder STD's)

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Rickettsia

very small bacteria that have causative agents of typhus & other febrile diseases in humans.

like viruses, can only grow inside living cells

transmitted by mites, ticks or lice.

11

Chlamydia

cocci, small parasitic bacteria like a virus

requires biomechanisms of another cell in order to reproduce

#1 causing STD

12

Eukaryotes

True nucleus

cells we're familiar with: plants & animals

have nucleus and nuclear membrane

Groups include: fungi, algae, protozoa

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Fungi

Fingi is found in bad food, pharmaceutical lack chlorophyll (can't make own food). They are Saprophytes; depend on food from others. Divide by asexual & sexual reproduce. Have cell wall & cellulose cell wall. both unicellular (single celled) & multicellular Unicellular: yeast (pathogens) Multicellular: Mold(pathogens) & mushrooms(produce toxins, damage GI)

14

Algae

1st in food chain, Autotrophs: they can make their own food bc they have chlorophyll. NOT A HUMAN PATHOGEN

Uses photosyntheses; traps sunlight

unicellular and multicellular

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Protozoa

(see notebook for this card)

*Parasite* : single celled: protozoa have structures used to move around

ciliata: move by cilia ; flagellate, amoeba, sporozoa

multicellular: Helmiths, nematodes, cestodes, trematodes

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Virus

living, non cellular, pathogenic organisms; simple in structure; DNA or RNA virus. outside of DNA/RNA is protein coat

small in size; obligate intracellular parasite (have to be inside a living cell)

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Size of Micro-organisms

...

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2. History of Micro

Demonic & Humoral Theory

Demonic: no terminology then only visual; thought that supernatural phenomenon caused by demons

Humoral: body fluid theory, natural thing

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Robert Hook Discovery

Englishman discovered 1st single microscope. Didn't see any live things. Microscope x270 magnification

20

Germ theory of Diseases

microorganisms can invade other organisms and cause disease

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Theory of Spontaneous Generation

living organism arose from non-living things

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John Needham (1745)

challenged Redi's findings. 1st who spoke of spontaneous generation. life could come from non-living things. left chicken broth in a flask open & presence of life appeared even when he heated & sealed the bottle.

He actually didn't heat it long enough to kill all the microbes

23

Francesco Redi

Put meat in one jar with a lid and another without a lid. Open one was covered in maggots, closed was not. The lid was though disproving Needhams spontaneous generation theory. Flies left eggs on the lid

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Theory of Biogenesis

1st proposed by Virchow who said living things can arise from pre-existing living cells.

Louise Pasteur: created gooseneck flask, if no air comes in living object stays. showed & supported theory.

25

Pasteurization

by Louis Pasteur; heating process to kill all inactive bacteria in milk, fruit juices, alcohol. Increase temp to 62.8 celsius for 30 mins.

Louis also discovered vaccine for Cholera.

26

Fermentation

Also by Louis

chemical breakdown of fruit juices into alcohol.

sugar + yeast in absence of air = alcohol

Alcohol + yeast in air = acetic acid vinegar (alcohol goes bad)

27

Robert Koch

single type of microorganism can cause a single type of disease. -Same pathogen must be present in every case of disease. -Pathogen must be isolated from disease & host & grown in pure culture (by itself) - pathogen in culture must cause the disease when inoculated into a health animal. -pathogen must be isolated from the 2nd set of diseased experimental animals & shown to be original organism. Transmission of anthrax between cows & humans which proved the germ theory;

28

Vaccine

discovered by Edward Jenner. People in village were sick with pox except for milk maid; tested her blood & she had antibodies. Vacca=Cow

Vaccine is a resistance to a particular disease conferred by inoculating w a vaccine. Prepared from a killed weakened pathogen

29

Antisepsis

Sepsis=infection ... Anti-infection.

Ignaz Semmelweis: encouraged hand washing & cleaning instruments

Joseph Lister: father of antiseptic surgery, used carbolic salts and acids to clean instruments

30

Immunology

Study of Immunity

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Virology

study of viruses, after discover of microscope

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Chemotherapy

Chemical treatment of disease.

33

Paul Ehlrich

discovered 1st synthetic drug artificially made in the lab

34

Alexander Flemming

natural drug discovered by accident; when he was working with staphylococcus discovered penicillin from penicillium in the mold.

35

Microbial Genetics & Molecular Biology

Microbial Genetics: how microorganism inherit traits

Molecular Biology: how genetic information is stored inside DNA and how DNA makes protein

36

Taxonomical Hierarchy

(see notebook for hierarchy)

Taxonomy: signs of classification and identification of organisms.

37

Kingdom classification system

In 1969 Robert Whittaker created 5 kingdom classifcations

1. Monera: *only procaryote group* ancestors to all eukaryotes, mostly unicellular & prokaryotic.

2. Protista: mostly unicellular organisms, eukaryotic, includes protozoa & algae

3. Fungi: heterotrophs, can't make own food absorb it

4. Plantae: multicellular phototrophs (make own food)

5. Animalia: multicellular ingestive heterotrophs

38

Domain Classification systems

Carl Woese: based this on modern techniques in biochem and molecular biology

1. Eubacteria

2. Archaeo bacteria

2. Eukaryotes

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Archaebacteria

live in extreme environments b/c their cell walls can't live in oxygen, carry out unusual metabolism;

Methanogens- metabolism produces CH4 gas (methane) Halophiles- high salt environment ;

Thermoacidphile-need high temps and high acid conditions

40

Naming micro organisms

always has a genus name, then species name. Genus name may be abbreviated ex: S. aureus. always underlined or italic

example: Staphylococcus aureus - Staphylococcus genus word meaning cluster of cocci

aureus is species name meaning golden (look yellowish)

41

Staphylococcus

a species of bacteria that are a common cause of infection. found on skin, upper respiratory.

clusters of cocci that grow in clusters on artificial media in lab.

many strains of S.Aureus; most killed by antibiotic methicillin but not the strains. MRSA is methicillin resistant s. aureus.

42

Escherichia Coli

(E.coli) another species of bacteria.

Coli- species meaning these bacteria live in the intestines (colon) or can infect the colon

There are strains of E.Coli; serious & fatal food infection.

43

Strain

Each different group within a species

44

Anton Leewhenoken

used microscope to see weaving of materials he wanted to see what was in tears, saliva, rain, pond water. 1st to see live biological specimens.

45

Phylogeny

refers to evolutionary history

46

Binary (transverse) Fission

bacteria divide by budding or fragmentation

binary fission; method of prokaryote division.

47

Phases of Bacteria Growth

(know 4 stages and what happens)

1. Lag Pase

2. Log Phase

3. Stationary Phase

4. Decline (death phase)

48

Lag Phase

when cells aren't dividing; making new cytoplasm, DNA; Elongate (become longer); lag phase is the TIME INTERVAL

between growth curves

49

Log Phase

when the cells are actively dividing at a steady rate aka EXPONENTIAL GROWTH PHASE.

bacteria are susceptible at this stage to antibiotics and radiation.

1-3 hours for growth phase to complete

50

stationary phase

growth of population stops because nutrients are used up and toxic materials build up.

same # of cells dividing same # of cells dying

51

Decline phase (death phase)

when population is dying

52

structure of prokaryotic bacterial cell

capsule

aka slime layer or GLYCOCALYX

Located external to the cell wall

structure; sticky, gelatins polysaccharide or polypeptide can be both.

functions: gives protection for bacteria against any adverse condition, protects from phagocytosis (cell eating)

help bacteria attach to any surface. gives virulence (power to become pathogenic)

53

flagella

hollow, whip like organ, for movement attached to cell membrane helps bacteria move

structure: consist of 3 parts, long filament attached to hook attached to basal body

54

saprophyte

depend on food from others