Radiographic Imaging Chapter 4 Vocabulary

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1

1.air-core transformer

Arrangement of two coils of wire in proximity to facilitate induction.

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2. ammeter

A device used to measure current connected in a series; measured in amperes.

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3. artificial permanent magnet

Manufactured from steel alloy called alnico, composed of aluminum, nickel, and cobalt.

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4. Autotransformer

a transformer that automatically sets by adjustments.

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5. Brush

A device, attached to slip rings, that allows the circuit to remain stationary while armature rotates without breaking the electrical contact between them.

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6. Capacitor

a device capable of accumulating and storing an electrical charge.

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7. Closed-core transformer

Arrangement of two coils of wire each filled with an iron core in proximity to facilitate induction that converges the inside and outside lines of force through the core.

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8. coercivity

The energy that causes reorientation of the magnetic dipoles.

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9. commutator ring

a single ring that is divided in half, with each half connected to one end of the armature wire.

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10. diamagnetic

Materials weakly repelled by all magnetic fields.

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11. dielectric

The insulator between two plates in a capacitor.

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12. diode

a rectifying semiconductor made by sandwiching p-type crystal with an n-type to form a p-n junction.

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13. dynamometer

Used to measure alternating current when electromagnets are used.

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14. eddy current loss

Results of currents opposing the cause that produced them.

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15. electromagnet

Temporary magnet produced by moving electric current.

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16. electromagnetic relay

A device used to protect the radiographer from electric shock by isolating control buttons on the x-ray console from the actual circuit in which high voltage is flowing; similar to a circuit breaker.

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17. farad (f)

The unit of capacitance.

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18. ferromagnetic

Materials that are highly permeable and susceptible to induction

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19. Fleming's hand rules

A series of easily remembered aids to help with the relationship between electricity and magnetism.

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20. flux density

Determined by field strength and the arc in which the lines of flux are located.

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21. full-wave rectification

The conversion of the opposing half of the incoming electron flow to always move in the same direction, instead of discarding half the cycle.

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22. galvanometer

Used to measure direct current when permanent magnets are used.

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23. gauss (g)

The unit used for measuring magnetic flux density.

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24. generator

A device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy using moving lines of flux in relationship to a conductor to induce current; also known as dynamo.

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25. half-wave rectification

Suppressed rectification resulting from only half of the incoming alternating current being converted to pulsating direct current; called self-rectification.

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26. hysteresis loss

Results from energy expended as the continually changing AC current magnetizes, demagnetizes, and remagnetizes the core material; also called lagging loss.

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27. I squared loss

Results from inherent resistance to current flow that is found in all conductors; power loss formula resistance is proportional to the square of current; sometimes called copper loss.

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28. Inductive reactance

The ability of an alternating current to switch directions, causing the opposing potential difference to induce against the incoming supply of electrons; measured in ohms of resistance.

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29. lines of flux

The force fields that are created when magnetic dipoles orient to create a magnet; also called lines of force and magnetic field.

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30. lines of force

The force fields that are created when magnetic dipoles orient to create a magnet; also called lines of flux and magnet field.

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31.magnet

An object that exhibits a uniformly strong magnetic field.

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32. magnetic dipole

Groups of atoms with their net magnetic field moving in the same direction; also know as magnetic domain.

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33. magnetic domain

Groups of atoms with their net magnetic field moving in the same direction; also know as magnetic dipoles.

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34. magnetic field

The force fields that are created when magnetic dipoles orient to create a magnet; aka lines of flux and lines of force.

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35. motor

A device that is supplied with electrical current to produce mechanical motion

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36. mutual induction

The result of two coils being placed in close proximity with a varying current supplied to the first coil, which then induces a similar flow in the second coil.

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37. natural magnet

Created when iron oxide remains in the earth's magnetic field for ages, slowly orientating the magnetic dipoles in the same direction.

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38. nonmagnetic

Materials not affected by magnetic fields and that cannot be magnetized.

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39. open-core transformer

Arrangements of two coils of wire each filled with an iron core in proximity to facilitate induction.

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40. orbital magnetic moment

The motion of a charged particle creates a magnetic force field perpendicular to the motion.

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41. paramagnetic

Materials that have a low permeability and weak attraction to magnetic fields.

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42. permeability

The ease with which a material can be magnetized.

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43. primary coil

The coil first supplied with the current.

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44. rectification

The process by which alternating current is changed to pulsating direct current.

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45. retentivity

The ability of a material to stay magnetized.

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46. rotor

A hollow copper cylinder or duff that is attached to the anode disk by molybdenum.

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47. secondary coil

The coil in which a current is inducted by the primary coil

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48. self-induction

The ability of an alternating current to switch directions, causing an opposing potential difference to induce against the incoming supply of electrons; allows direct current to flow while at the same time hindering alternating current.

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49. self-rectification

Suppressed rectification resulting from only half of the incoming alternating current being converted to pulsating direct current; called half-wave rectification.

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50. shell-type transformer

Arrangements of two coils of wire each filled with an iron core in proximity to facilitate induction.

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51. silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR)

A complex semiconductor useful for high-speed switching of the primary high-voltage x-ray circuit; aka thyristor.

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52. sine wave

a type of curve produced by an AC generator.

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53. slip ring

A device with attached brushes that allows the circuit to remain stationary while the armature rotates without breaking the electric contact between them.

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54. solenoid

A coil consisting of a series of loops, which serve to increase the flux density.

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55. space charge cloud

The ejection of electrons from the surface of the wire due to increased heat, causing an electron cloud; called thermionic emission.

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56. spin magnetic moment

The magnetic effect created by electrons spinning on their axes

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57. stator

Induction-motor electromagnets that turn the anode.

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58. step-down transformer

A device used to decrease the voltage from the primary to the secondary coil.

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59. step-up transformer

A device used to increase the voltage from the primary to the secondary coil.

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60. tesla (T)

The unit used for measuring magnetic flux density.

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61. thermionic emission

The ejection of electrons from the surface of the wire due to increased heat, causing an electron cloud; also called the space charge cloud.

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62. thyristor

A complex semiconductor useful for high-speed switching of the primary high voltage x-ray circuit; aka silicon-controlled rectifier.

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63. transformer

a device in which two coils are placed near one another without electrical connection. The number of turns in the coils differs, causing a change in the current in the secondary coil; this serves to either increase or decreases the voltage.

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64. transformer law

When the voltage is increased from the primary to secondary it is called a step-up transformer. When the voltage is decreased from primary to secondary it is called a step-down transformer.

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65. voltmeter

A device used to measure current connected in parallel; measures potential difference in volts.

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66. weber

SI unit used to measure magnetic flux.