Psych 311 unit 2

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1

Validity

The degree to which a measurement procedure accurately measures what it is intended to.

2

Face validity

The superficial appearance of a measurement procedure, whether it looks like it measures the variable that it claims to measure.

- Sometimes disguised so participants do not adjust their answer to produce a better self-image

3

Concurrent validity

The degree to which scores obtained from new measurement relate directly to scores obtained from another, better established procedure.

4

Positive relationship

Two measurements change together in the same direction

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Negative relationship

Two measurements change in opposite directions

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Predictive validity

When the measurements of a construct accurately predict behavior

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Construct validity

When measurements of a variable behave exactly the same way as the variable itself

- Feminism and beliefs that relate to feminism

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Convergent validity

Involves creating two different methods to measure the same construct, then showing a strong relationship between the measures obtained from the two methods

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Divergent validity

Involves demonstrating that we are measuring one specific construct and not combing two different constructs in the same measurement process, goal is to differentiate between two conceptually distinct constructs

- Step 1: demonstrate convergent validity for both constructs

- Step 2: demonstrate that the two constructs are separate and distinct

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Reliability

Consistency of the measurement

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Observer error

The individual who makes the measurements can introduce simple human error into the measurement process

12

Environmental error

There are so many environmental variables that it is essentially impossible to obtain two identical environmental conditions

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Participant change

The participant can change between measurements

14

Test-retest reliability

The reliability estimate obtained by comparing the scores obtained from two successive measurements

15

Parallel-forms reliability

When different versions of the instrument are used for the test and retest

16

Inter-rater reliability

The degree of agreement between two observers

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Split-half reliability

The degree of consistency between scores on each half of a test

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Desynchrony

The lack of agreement between two measures possibly due to one measure being more sensitive or changing at a different time than the other measure, can be fixed by assigning one score based one the two measures.

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Artifact

An external factor that may influence or distort measurements

20

Experimenter bias

Occurs when the measurements obtained in a study are influenced by the experimenter's expectations or personal beliefs regarding the study

21

Demand characteristics

Refers to any of the potential cues or features of a study that (1) suggest to the participant what the purpose and hypothesis is (2) influence the participants to respond and behave in a certain way

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Reactivity

Occurs when participants modify their natural behavior in response to the fact that they are participating in a research study

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Good subject role

Participants have identified the hypothesis of the study and are trying to produce responses that support it

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Negativistic subject role

Participants have identified the purpose of the study and are trying to produce responses contrary to it

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Apprehensive subject role

Overly concerned about their performance in the study and try to place themselves in a desirable light by producing socially desirable responses

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Faithful subject role

Follow instructions to the letter and avoid acting on any suspicions they have about the purpose of the study

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A laboratory

Any setting that is obviously devoted to the discipline of science

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Field

A place that participant perceives as a natural environment