Fundamentals of Nursing: Key Terms- Chapter 32 Flashcards


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1

active exercise

joint movement activated by the person

2

ankylosis

fixation or immobilization of a joint

3

atrophy

decrease in the size of a body structure

4

body mechanics

efficient use of the body as a machine and as a means of locomotion

5

cartilage

hard, nonvascular connective tissue found in the joints as well as in the nose, ear, thorax, trachea, and larynx

6

contractures

permanently contracted state of a muscle

7

dangling

position in which the person sits on the edge of the bed with legs and feet dandling over the side of the bed

8

exercise

active exertion of muscles involving the contraction and relaxation of muscle groups

9

flaccidity

decreased muscle tone

synonym for hypotonicity

10

footdrop

complication resulting from extended plantar flexion

11

isokinetic exercise

exercise involving muscle contractions with resistance varying at a constant rate

12

isometric exercise

exercise in which muscle tension occurs without a significant change in muscle length

13

isotonic exercise

movement in which muscles shorten and move

14

ligaments

tough fibrous bands that bind joints together and connect bones and cartilage

15

negative nitrogen balance

condition resulting in muscle wasting and decreased physical energy for movement and work

eg-anorexia and some cancers

16

neurons

nerve cells, which conduct impulses from one part of the body to another

17

orthopedics

the correction or prevention of disorders of body structures used in locomotion

18

osteoporosis

condition characterized by loss of calcium from bone tissue

19

paralysis

absence of strength secondary to nervous impairment

20

paresis

impaired muscle strength or weakness

21

passive exercise

manual or mechanical means of moving the joints

22

patient care ergonomics

practice of designing equipment and work tasks to confirm to the capability of the worker in relation to patient care

23

range of motion

ROM

complete extent of movement of which a joint is normally capable

24

spasticity

increased muscle tone

25

tendons

strong, flexible, inelastic fibrous bands that attach muscle to bone

26

tonus

normal, partially steady state of muscle contraction