Chapter 2 Study Skills: Key Terms

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1

Matter

Anything that occupies space and has mass

2

Energy

The capacity to do work

3

Kinetic Energy

Energy in action

4

Potential Energy

Energy that is stored and has the potential/capability to do work but is not presently doing so

5

Chemical Energy

Energy stored in the bonds of chemical substances

i.e.: adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

6

Electrical Energy

Results from the movement of charged particles, called ions, across cell membranes

i.e.: Nerve impulses, cardiac muscle cell contraction

7

Ions

Charged particles that produce electrical energy

8

Mechanical energy

Energy directly involved in moving matter

i.e.: skeletal muscles involved in voluntary movement

9

Radiant Energy

Energy that travels in waves

i.e.: visible light, UV light, heat, imaging (X-Rays)

Also called electromagnetic radiation

10

Atoms

identical particles/building blocks that compose all forms of matter

11

Molecule

Combinations of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds

12

Compound

two or more different kinds of atoms bound by chemical bonds

13

Mixtures

Substances composed of two ore more components physically intermixed

14

Solutions

Homogenous mixtures of components that may be gases, liquids, or solids

15

Homogenous

A mixture that has exactly the same composition or makeup throughout

16

Solvent

the substance that is present in the greatest amount

17

Solute

Substance(s) present in smaller amount(s) that is/are dissolved in the solvent

18

Colloids

heterogenous mixtures

19

heterogenous

Mixtures in which the composition is dissimilar in different areas of the mixture

20

Suspensions

heterogenous mixtures with large, often visible solutes that tend to settle out

i.e.: sand and water

21

Reactants

Substances entering a chemical reaction together

22

Products

Resulting chemical end products in a chemical reaction

23

Synthesis Reaction

AKA Combination Reaction; chemical bonds are formed (A + B -> AB)

Smaller molecules are bonded together to form larger, more complex molecules

i.e.: amino acids joined together to form a protein

24

Anabolic

Constructive activities in body cells

25

Decomposition Reaction

Chemical bonds are broken (AB -> A + B)

Larger molecules broken down into smaller, less complex molecules

i.e.: polysaccharides (glycogen) are broken down into monosaccharides (glucose)

26

Catabolic

Degradative or "breakdown" activities in cells

27

Exchange/Displacement Reaction

Chemical bonds are both formed and broken (AB + CD -> AC + BD)

i.e.: cellular respiration

28

Catalysts

Substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions without themselves becoming chemically changed or part of the product

29

Enzymes

Biological catalysts;enable chemical reactions to occur quickly enough to support life

Globular proteins; may be purely protein or include a cofactor (metal ion) or coenzyme

30

Salt

An ionic compound containing cations other than hydrogen (H+) and anions other than the hydroxyl ion (OH-)

31

Acids

Substances that release hydrogen ions in detectable amounts

Electrolytes that have a sour taste, can react with (dissolve) may metals, and "burn" substances

32

Bases

Substances that are proton receptors - they take up hydrogen ions in detectable amounts

Electrolytes that have a bitter taste and feel slippery

33

Proton Receptors

Substances (usually bases) that take up hydrogen ions in detectable amounts

34

Proton Donors

Substances (usually acids) that release hydrogen ions in detectable amounts

35

Neutralization Reaction

Displacement reaction in which acids and bases are mixed, and react with each other to form water and a salt

Joining of H+ and OH- ions forms water and neutralizes the solution, salt is in the form of dissociated ions in the water

36

Buffers

Chemical systems in the body (proteins and other types of molecules) that regulate the homeostasis of acid-base balance and resist abrupt and large swings in the pH of body fluids by releasing hydrogen ions (acting as acids) when the pH begins to rise and by binding hydrogen ions (acting as bases) when the pH drops

37

Strong Acids

Acids that dissociate completely and irreversibly in water

38

Weak Acids

Acids that do not dissociate completely in water

39

Strong Bases

Bases that completely and irreversibly dissociate in water and quickly tie up H+ ions

40

Weak Bases

Bases that incompletely and reversibly ionize in water and accept relatively fewer protons than strong bases

41

Polymers

Chainlike molecules that are made of many monomers

42

Monomers

Small, identical or similar units that join together via dehydration synthesis to form polymers

43

Dehydration Synthesis

A process in which an OH- molecule is removed from one monomer and an H+ molecule is removed from another monomer (one full H2O molecule in total) to bond the two monomers into a polymer

44

Hydrolysis

A process in which an OH- molecule is added to one monomer and an H+ ion is added to another (one full H2O molecule in total) to release the two monomers from each other or from a larger polymer

45

Carbohydrates

A group of molecules that includes sugars and starches; major function is to provide a readily available source of cellular fuel (energy)

Represent 1-2 percent of cell mass

46

Monosaccharides

"one" sugar, simple sugars; pentose (5 carbon ring) and hexose (6 carbon ring) sugars

i.e.: deoxyribose, ribose (pentose); glucose, fructose, galactose (hexose)

47

Disaccharides

"two" sugars; two monosaccharides (simple sugars) joined together

i.e.: sucrose, maltose, lactose

48

Polysaccharides

"many" sugars; multiple monosaccharides (simple sugars) joined together

i.e. starch (storage carb of plants) and glycogen (storage carb of animal tissue/the stored form of glucose)

49

Lipids

"Fats"; insoluble in water but dissolve readily in other lipids and organic solvents such as alcohol and ether

50

Triglycerides

"neutral" fats; called "fats" when solid and "oils" when liquid; Composed of a glycerol molecule with three fatty acid chains bound to it by dehydration synthesis

Main functions: energy storage (major source of stored energy in body), insulation/protection

Found in adipose tissue

51

Saturated Fats

Solid at room temperature; molecularly, the fatty acid chains are all straight and composed of single bonds throughout

i.e.: animal fats, butter

52

Unsaturated Fats

Liquid at room temperature; molecularly, the fatty acid chains have one or more double bonds, which cause the chains to kink and therefore cannot be packed closely enough to solidify

i.e.: plant oils (olive oil, etc.)

53

Monounsaturated Fat

Unsaturated fat with one double bond in its fatty acid chain

54

Polyunsaturated Fat

Unsaturated fat with two or more double bonds in its fatty acid chain(s)

55

Trans Fats

Oils that have been modified; solidified by addition of H atoms at sites of carbon double bonds; allows longer shelf life on food products

i.e.: margarine, packaged foods, baked goods, fried foods

BAD!!!!!!

56

Phospholipids

Modified triglycerides - diglycerides (have only two fatty acid chains instead of three); glycerol "head" is polar and hydrophilic; fatty acid "tails are nonpolar and hydrophobic

Main function: form plasma cell membranes

57

Steroids

Flat molecules made of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings

Main function: important component of plasma cell membranes; hormone synthesis

i.e.: cholesterol

58

Proteins

Long chains of amino acids connected by peptide bonds (polypeptides)

10-30 percent of cell mass

Main function: basic structural material of the body, play vital roles in cell function

59

Amino Acids

Building blocks of proteins

60

Primary Structure

Protein structure in which the primary chain is in a linear sequence of amino acids

61

Secondary Structure

Alpha (helix): primary chain twists and turns to form a more complex structure

Beta (pleated): primary chain "zig-zags" to resemble accordion ribbons

62

Tertiary Structure

Polypeptide folds up on itself to form a globular (ball-like) structure

63

Quaternary Structure

Two or more polypeptide chains, each with its own tertiary structure, combine and interact with each other to form a functional protein

64

Structural Proteins

AKA "Fibrous Proteins"; some have secondary structures, but most have tertiary or quaternary structures

Main function: provide mechanical support and tensile strength

i.e.: keratin, elastin, collagen, certain contractile fibers (actin, myosin)

65

Functional Proteins

AKA "Globular Proteins"; compact, spherical proteins that have at least tertiary structure

Main functions: immunity, growth/development regulation, catalysts in chemical reactions...

i.e.: enzymes, albumin, antibodies, hormones, transport chaperones (hemoglobin, lipoproteins: LDLs, HDLs)

66

Nucleic Acids

Largest molecules in the body; composed of nucleotides

Main functions: DNA and RNA

67

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

The genetic material found within the nucleus of a cell; double-stranded helical (double helix) molecule

Main function: blueprint/instructions for synthesis of all proteins in the body

68

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

Single-stranded linear molecule, active mostly outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm

Main function: carry out DNA's instruction for protein synthesis

69

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

Primary energy-transferring molecule in cells; provides a form of energy that is immediately usable by all body cells

Energy in the bonds is coupled from the energy released during glucose catabolism (breakdown)