Chapter 1 Study Skills: Key Terms

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1

Anatomy

Study of the structure/form of body parts and their relationship to one another

2

Physiology

Study of the function of body parts and how they work to sustain life

3

Macroscopic Anatomy

Study of large structures visible to the naked eye

4

Regional Anatomy

study of structures within a region of the body

5

System/Systemic Anatomy

Study of structures within a body system (e.g. the urinary system)

6

Surface Anatomy

study of internal structures as they relate to overlying skin (visible muscle masses or veins seen on the surface)

7

Microscopic Anatomy

Study of structures too small to be seen by the naked eye

8

Cytology

Study of cells with a microscope (microscopic study)

9

Histology

Study of tissues with a microscope

10

Developmental Anatomy

Study of changes in body structure throughout the life span

11

Embryology

Study of developments before birth (formation and structure of embryos)

12

Pathology

Causal study of disease

13

Pathological Anatomy

Structure changes associated with disease

14

Radiographic Anatomy

Study of internal structures using imaging (X-Rays, CT (Dynamic Spatial Reconstruction), MRI, etc.)

15

Pathophysiology

Study of functional changes associated with disease

16

Chemical Level

Atoms (of elements), molecules, and organelles

17

Cellular level

Single Cell

18

Tissue Level

Groups of similar cells with common function

19

Organ Level

Contains two or more types of tissues with a specific function

20

Organ System Level

Group of organs working closely together

21

Organismal Level (Body)

All organ systems combined to make the whole organism

22

Movement

Includes activities promoted by the muscular system

23

Responsiveness

Ability to sense changes in the environment (stimuli) and respond to them

24

Digestion

Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules for absorption into the bloodstream

25

Metabolism

Broad term that includes all the chemical reactions that occur within body cells

26

Excretion

Process of removing wastes from the body

27

Reproduction

Creation of new organisms

28

Growth

Increase in size of a body part or the organism as a whole

29

Survival Needs

factors needed to maintain life

30

Integumentary System

Forms external body covering; protects deeper tissues from harm or injury

31

Skeletal System

Protects/supports body organs, provides a framework for muscles to use to cause movement

32

Muscular System

Allows manipulation of environment, locomotion, and facial expressions

33

Nervous System

Fast-acting control system of the body; responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands

34

Endocrine System

Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and metabolism

35

Cardiovascular System

Heart pumps blood through blood vessels, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc.

36

Lymphatic System

Picks up fluids leaked from blood, returns them to the blood; houses white blood cells involved in immunity

37

Respiratory System

Keeps blood supplied with oxygen, removes carbon dioxide

38

Digestive System

Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells

39

Urinary System

Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body; regulates water, electrolytes, and acid-base balance of the body

40

Reproductive System

Overall function is production of offspring; produces male and female sex hormones

41

Homeostasis

Ability of the body to maintain relatively stable/constant internal conditions despite constant changes in environment

42

Variable

a factor that can change (blood sugar, body temperature, blood vessel integrity) and is monitored and regulated

43

Stimulus

Something that produces a change in the variable

44

Receptor (sensor)

Monitors environment, detects stimuli, initiates a signal about the change in variable, input is sent to control center via afferent pathway

45

Control Center (analyzer)

Determines set point for variable (level, range, degree), receives and analyzes input from receptor, determines appropriate response, sends output info to effector via efferent pathway

46

Effector (actor)

A structure that enacts (carries out) the response directed by the control center

47

Negative Feedback Mechanism

Most common feedback mechanism in the body; Response has a negative influence on the original stimulus (counters/reduces); variable then changes in opposite direction of initial change to return to a balanced state

48

Positive Feedback Mechanism

Response enhances/exaggerates/amplifies the original stimulus; may exhibit a cascade or amplifying effect as feedback causes variable continue in same direction as initial change; usually controls infrequent events

49

Homeostatic Imbalance

Disturbance of homeostasis

50

Anatomical Position

Standing upright, feet slightly apart, toes/eyes facing forward, arms hanging to the sides, palms facing forward, thumbs pointing away from the body

51

Axial Division

Refers to the region that includes the head, neck, and torso

52

Appendicular DIvision

Refers to the appendages, or the arms and legs

53

Superior

Closer to the top of the head; above (usually used in the axial region)

54

Inferior

Closer to the bottom of the feet; below (usually used in axial region)

55

Anterior (Ventral, in humans)

Closer to the front

56

Posterior (Dorsal, in humans)

Closer to the back

57

Medial

Closer to the midline of the body

58

Lateral

Farther from the midline of the body

59

Intermediate

In between

60

Proximal

Closer to the attachment of the body part to the trunk (used in appendages)

61

Distal

Farther from the attachment of the body part to the trunk (used in appendages)

62

Superficial

Closer to the surface of the skin; more external

63

Deep

Farther from the body surface; more internal

64

Midsagittal Plane

Divides the specimen into equal left and right halves

65

Sagittal Plane

Divides the specimen into left and right sides, not necessarily equal

66

Frontal Plane

Divides the specimen into anterior and posterior parts

67

Transverse (Cross) Plane

Divides the specimen into superior and inferior parts

68

Parasagittal Plane

Off-center/not along the midline; unequal left and right parts

69

Dorsal Body Cavity

Houses the central nervous system (CNS); subdivided into the cranial cavity and the vertebral cavity

70

Cranial Cavity

located in the skull; contains the brain

71

Vertebral Cavity

Created within the stacked vertebra of the spinal column; encloses the spinal cord

72

Ventral Body Cavity

Houses the internal organs ("viscera"); subdivided into the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity

73

Thoracic Cavity

Chest cavity that is bounded posteriorly by the spinal column, laterally and anteriorly by the rib cage, and inferiorly by the diaphragm muscle; contains the lungs and heart

74

Pleural Cavities

Spaces within the membranes that surround the lungs

75

Mediastinum

Space between the lungs; contains the heart

76

Pericardial Cavity

Space within the membrane that surrounds the heart

77

Abdominopelvic Cavity

Space bounded superiorly by the diaphragm muscle and inferiorly by the pelvic floor; artificially divided into two regions - the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity

78

Abdominal Cavity

Superior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity; contains the digestive viscera

79

Pelvic cavity

Inferior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity located between the pelvic bones; contains the urinary bladder, the rectum, and reproductive organs

80

Serous Membranese (Serosa/ae)

Line closed ventral body cavities; these membranes are double layered and have specific names depending on their location; secretes serous fluid between serosae, which act as lubricant to reduce friction as organs move and slide

81

Pleurae

Serous membranes surrounding the lungs

82

Pericardium

Serous membrane surrounding the heart

83

Peritoneum

Serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and the digestive viscera

84

Mucous Membranes

Line cavities and passageways that are open to the outside of the body; these membranes secrete mucus

85

The Integument

The skin; this membrane protects all of the underlying structures and has some metabolic functions

86

Visceral Layer

Inner layer of the serous membrane that lines the organ

87

Parietal Layer

Outer layer of the serous membrane that liens the ventral body cavity

88

Frontal

Forehead

89

Orbital

Eye

90

Nasal

Nose

91

Oral

Mouth

92

Buccal

Cheek

93

Mental

Chin

94

Otic

Ear

95

Cephalic

Head

96

Thoracic

Chest

97

Mammary

Breast

98

Sternal

Sternum

99

Axillary

Underarms

100

Antecubital

Inner Elbow

101

Antebrachial

Inner Lower Arm

102

Abdominal

Abdomen

103

Umbilical

Navel

104

Pelvic

Inner Hips/Pelvis

105

Coxal

Outer Hips/Pelvis

106

Inguinal

Groin

107

Pubic

Genitals

108

Carpal

Wrist

109

Pollex

Thumb

110

Palmar

Palm

111

Digital (hand)

Fingers

112

Manus

Hand

113

Femoral

Femur/Thigh

114

Patellar

Front of the Knee

115

Peroneal

Calf

116

Crural

Shin

117

Tarsal

Ankle

118

Pedal

Foot

119

Hallux

Big Toe

120

Digital (foot)

Toes

121

Occipital

Back of the Head

122

Cervical

Back of the Neck

123

Acromial

Shoulder

124

Scapular

Shoulder Blade

125

Vertebral

Back, Along the Spine

126

Olecranal

Outside of the Elbow

127

Lumbar

Lower Back

128

Sacral

Sacrum (Lower Back, below the Lumbar Region)

129

Gluteal

Buttocks

130

Popliteal

Back of the Knee

131

Sural

Back of the lower leg

132

Calcaneal

Heel

133

Plantar

Sole of the Foot