Chapter 1: 1.2 A Human Perspective

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created 4 years ago by kflowers19
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Section 1.2
Grade levels:
College: Second year
Subjects:
microbiology
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1

Biodegeneration

Degrade PCBs, DDT, tricholoroethylene & others

Help clean up oil spills

2

Bioremediation

using microorganisms to hasten decay of pollutants

3

Biotechnology

use of microbiological & biochemical techniques to solve practical problems

4

Genetic engineering

introduction of genes into another organism

disease-resistant plants

production of medications (e.g. insulin for diabetes)

5

Pathogens

cause disease

influenza in 1918-1919 killed more Americans than died in WWI, WWII, Korean, Vietnam, & Iraq wars combined

Modern sanitation, vaccination, & effective antimicrobial treatments have reduced incidences of the worst diseases

6

Golden Age of Microbiology

born after the Spontaneous generation was disproved

  • most pathogenic bacteria identified (1875-1918)
  • Work on viruses began
  • Understanding that microscopic agents could cause disease let to control efforts
  • Huge improvements in past century in human health
    • Antibiotics to treat infectious diseases
    • Vaccines to prevent diseases
7

Small pox

The viral disease that was once a leading killer of ~10 million deaths over 4000 years ago

devastating on unexposed populations (e.g. Aztecs in New World)

Worldwide eradication attempts eliminated disease

  • No reported cases since 1977
8

Plague

Another major killer in history

~1/3 of population of Europe (or ~25 million individuals) died b/w 1346-1350

Today, fewer than 100 die worldwide

Control of rodent population harboring bacterium

Antibiotics available