Nursing Mental Health - Personality part 2
- Birth-2 years
- Development of a sense of self as separate from the external environment occurs because of increased mobility and awareness.
- Concept of object permanence emerges as the ability to form mental images evolves.
- 2-6 years
- Learning to express self with language, development of understanding of symbolic gestures
- achievement of object permanence
- 6-12 years
- Learning to apply logic to thinking; development of understanding reversibility and spatiality;
- Learning to differentiate and classify, increased socialization and application of rules.
- 12-15+ years
- Learning to think and reason in abstract terms
- Making and testing hypotheses, capability of logical thinking and reasoning expand and are refined;
- Cognitive maturity achieved.
- 4-10 Years
- Punishment and obedience orientation: Behavior motivated by fear of punishment (e.g. I'll do it or else or I can't watch TV)
- Instrumental relativist orientation: Behavior motivated by ego centrism and concern for self. (e.g. I'll do it if I get something in return or because you asked me)
- 10-13 years/into adulthood
- Interpersonal concordance orientation stage: Behavior motivated by expectations of others; strong desire for approval and acceptance. (e.g. I'll do iut because it will please you)
- Law and order orientation: Behavior motivated by respect for authority (e.g. I'll do it because it is the law)
- From Adolescence onwards
- Social contract legalistic orientation: behavior motivated by respect for universal laws and moral principles; guided by a set of values (I'll do it because it is the moral and legal thing to do)
- Universal ethical principle orientation: behavior motivated by internalized principles of honor, justice and respect for human dignity, guided by the conscience (I'll do it because I believe it is the right thing to do)
Learning to Count on Others
- Learning to communication in various ways with the primary caregiver in order to have comfort needs fulfilled.
- Raw materials: biological components, personality/temperament, intellectual, cultural & environmental factors
Learning to delay satisfaction
- Learning the satisfaction of pleasing others by delaying self-gratification in small ways.
Learning to delay satisfaction - Failure to Complete
- Suspiciousness and envy of others/directing hostility towards others
- Hoarding/Withholding possessions from others
- Inordinate neatness and punctuality
- Inability to relate to others - sharing feelings, idea, experiences
- Ability to vary personality characteristics.
- Early childhood
- Learning appropriate roles and behaviors by acquiring the ability to perceive the expectations of others.
Developing skills in participation
- Late Childhood
- Learning the skills of compromise, competition, and cooperation with others.
- Establishment of a more realistic view of the world and one's place in it.