Nursing Mental Health - Personality part 2

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created 3 years ago by NalaS
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Piaget's, Kohlberg's, Peplau
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nursing
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1

Piaget's

Sensorimotor

  • Birth-2 years
  • Development of a sense of self as separate from the external environment occurs because of increased mobility and awareness.
  • Concept of object permanence emerges as the ability to form mental images evolves.
2

Piaget's

Preoperational

  • 2-6 years
  • Learning to express self with language, development of understanding of symbolic gestures
  • achievement of object permanence
3

Piaget's

Concrete Operations

  • 6-12 years
  • Learning to apply logic to thinking; development of understanding reversibility and spatiality;
  • Learning to differentiate and classify, increased socialization and application of rules.
4

Piaget's

Formal Operations

  • 12-15+ years
  • Learning to think and reason in abstract terms
  • Making and testing hypotheses, capability of logical thinking and reasoning expand and are refined;
  • Cognitive maturity achieved.
5

Kohlberg's

Preconventional

  • 4-10 Years
  • Punishment and obedience orientation: Behavior motivated by fear of punishment (e.g. I'll do it or else or I can't watch TV)
  • Instrumental relativist orientation: Behavior motivated by ego centrism and concern for self. (e.g. I'll do it if I get something in return or because you asked me)
6

Kohlberg's

Conventional

  • 10-13 years/into adulthood
  • Interpersonal concordance orientation stage: Behavior motivated by expectations of others; strong desire for approval and acceptance. (e.g. I'll do iut because it will please you)
  • Law and order orientation: Behavior motivated by respect for authority (e.g. I'll do it because it is the law)
7

Kohlberg's

Postconventional

  • From Adolescence onwards
  • Social contract legalistic orientation: behavior motivated by respect for universal laws and moral principles; guided by a set of values (I'll do it because it is the moral and legal thing to do)
  • Universal ethical principle orientation: behavior motivated by internalized principles of honor, justice and respect for human dignity, guided by the conscience (I'll do it because I believe it is the right thing to do)
8

Peplau's

Learning to Count on Others

  • Infancy
  • Learning to communication in various ways with the primary caregiver in order to have comfort needs fulfilled.
  • Raw materials: biological components, personality/temperament, intellectual, cultural & environmental factors
9

Peplau's

Learning to delay satisfaction

  • Toddlerhood
  • Learning the satisfaction of pleasing others by delaying self-gratification in small ways.
10

Peplau's

Learning to delay satisfaction - Failure to Complete

  • Suspiciousness and envy of others/directing hostility towards others
  • Hoarding/Withholding possessions from others
  • Inordinate neatness and punctuality
  • Inability to relate to others - sharing feelings, idea, experiences
  • Ability to vary personality characteristics.
11

Peplau's

Identifying oneself

  • Early childhood
  • Learning appropriate roles and behaviors by acquiring the ability to perceive the expectations of others.
12

Peplau's

Developing skills in participation

  • Late Childhood
  • Learning the skills of compromise, competition, and cooperation with others.
  • Establishment of a more realistic view of the world and one's place in it.