Bus Law 2.01

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1

Answer

Formal written document that admits or denies each allegation of the complaint and states any defenses that the defendant plans to use.

2

Appellate Court

Courts that have the authority to hear appeals and review cases from lower courts.

3

Appellate Jurisdiction

Authority of court to review a decision of a lower court or administrative agency.

4

Arraignment

Procedure in which the accused is brought before the court, read the indictment or information, and asked to plead guilty or not guilty.

5

Arrest

Action when a person is deprived of his or her freedom.

6

Bail

Money or other property that is left with the court to assure the court that the person will return to stand trial.

7

Complaint

Legal document containing a short and plain statement of the plaintiff's claim against the defendant.

8

Contempt of Court

Action that hinders the administration of justice in court.

9

Court

Governmental forum that administers justice under the law.

10

Court of Record

Accurate, detailed report of what went on at a trial.

11

Delinquent Child

Minor, under a certain age (usually sixteen, seventeen, or eighteen), who has committed an act that would be a crime if done by an adult.

12

Detention Hearing

Hearing whether there are good reasons for keeping the accused in custody and whether or not there are special circumstances affecting the case.

13

Due Process

An administrative agency decision-making, notice of charges or potential rule making coupled with opportunity to appear, present evidence, and confront witnesses if warranted.

14

Due Process of Law

Constitutional requirement for fundamental fairness in our legal and court system.

15

Ex parte Injunction

issued by a judge after hearing only one side of an argument.

16

General Jurisdiction

Authority of a court to hear a wide range of cases.

17

Grand Jury

Jury of inquiry. It is a group of citizens called together by a court official to determine whether there is enough evidence to justify accusing certain persons of certain crimes.

18

Indictment

Written accusation issued by the grand jury charging the individual or individuals named in it with a certain crime.

19

Injunction

Court order issued by a judge ordering a person to do or not to do something.

20

Intermediate Court

Court between the lower court and the highest court. Also called appellate court.

21

Judgment

Final result of a trial.

22

Jurisdiction

Power of a court to decide a case.

23

Jury

Panel of citizens sworn by a court to decide issues of fact in court cases.

24

Justice

Title of a judge on the state Supreme Court or federal Supreme Court.

25

Juveniles

Individuals over 13 and under 18 years of age who have special status under the criminal law.

26

Limited Jurisdiction

Authority of a court to hear only one particular type of case.

27

Minor

Young person who has not reached the age of legal adulthood. Eighteen is now generally accepted as the age of legal adulthood.

28

Municipal Court

City court, usually divided into traffic and criminal divisions.

29

Original Jurisdiction

Power to hear the case in full for the first time.

30

Precedent

When judge is required to follow an earlier court decision when deciding a case with similar circumstances. Also called doctrine of stare decisis.

31

Probate Court

Administers wills and estates.

32

Procedural Defense

Defense based on problems with the way evidence is obtained or the way the accused person is arrested, questioned, tried, or punished.

33

Procedural Law

Group of laws that define the methods for enforcing legal rights and duties.

34

Prosecutor

Party that accuses the person of a crime. The plaintiff.

35

Punitive Damages

Money a court requires a defendant to pay in order to punish and make an example of the defendant.

36

Real Defense

Defense that may be used against a holder in due course in a legal action involving a negotiable instrument; a defense that prohibits a holder in due course from collecting on a negotiable instrument.

37

Small Claims Court

Special court intended to handle small claims on debts quickly and simply.

38

Stare Decisis

Doctrine that requires lower courts to follow existing case law in deciding similar cases.

39

Statue of Limitations

State laws setting time limit for bringing a lawsuit.

40

Statutes

Laws enacted by state or federal legislatures.

41

Trial Court

First court to hear a dispute.

42

Unruly Child

Minor who has done something that would not be a crime if it were done by an adult.

43

Verdict

Decision of the jury.