Key Terms- Ch 34

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created 5 years ago by Lexi1108
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1

acute pain

episode of pain that lasts from seconds to less than 6 months

2

addiction

a pattern of compulsive use of addictive substances for means other than those prescribed

3

adjuvant

drugs typically used for other purposes, but also used to enhance the affect of opioids by providing additional pain relief

4

breakthrough pain

temporary flare up of moderate to severe pain that occurs even when the patient is taking around the clock meds for persistent pain

5

chronic pain

episode of pain hat lasts 6 months of longer;

may be intermittent or continuous

6

cutaneous pain

superficial pain usually involving the skin or subcutaneous tissue

7

dynorphin

the endorphin having the most potent analgesic effect

8

endorphines

morphine like substances released by the body that appear to alter the perception of pain

9

enkephalins

opioids that are widespread throughout the brain and dorsal horn of the spinal cord and are believed to reduce pain sensation by inhibiting the release of substance P

10

ethnocentrism

belief that ones own ideas, beliefs, and practices are best, superior, or most preferred to those of others;

using ones cultural norms as the standard to evaluate others beliefs

11

exacerbation

period in chronic illness when the symptoms of the disease reappear

12

gate control theory

theory that explains that excitatory pain stimuli carried by small diameter nerve fibers can be blocked by inhibiting signals carried by large diameter nerve fibers

13

intractable

severe pain that is extremely resistant to relief measures

14

modulation

process by which the sensation of pain is inhibited or modified

15

neuromodulators

endogenous opioid chemical regulators that appear to have analgesic activity and alter pain perception

16

neuropathic pain

pain that results as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting abnormal functioning of the peripheral nervous system or central nervous system

17

neurotransmitters

substances that either excite or inhibit target nerve cells

18

nociceptors

pain receptors

19

nociceptive pain

pain from a normal process that results in noxious stimuli being perceived as painful

20

opioid

more correct term for narcotic analgesics, since there drugs act by binding to opiate receptor sites in the central nervous system

21

pain threshold

amount of stimulation required before a person experiences the sensation of pain

22

pain tolerance

point beyond which a person is no longer willing to endure pain

23

perception

conscious process of organizing and interpreting data from the sense into meaningful information

24

phantom pain

sensation or pain without demonstrable physiologic or pathologic substances;commonly observed after the amputation of a limb

25

physical dependence

phenomenon in which the body physiologically becomes accustomed to an opioid and suffers withdrawal symptoms if the opioid is suddenly removed or the dose is rapidly decreased

26

placebo

latin word meaning "I shall please"

an inactive substance that gives satisfaction to the person using it

27

psychogenic pain

pain for which no physical cause can be identified

28

referred pain

pain in an area removed from that in which stimulation has its origin

29

remission

period in a chronic illness when the disease is present, but the person does not experience symptoms of the disease

30

somatic pain

pain originating in structures in the bodys external wall

31

tolerance

occurrence of the bodys becoming accustomed to an opioid and needing a larger dose each time for pain relief

32

transduction

activation of pain receptors

33

transmission

conduction of pain sensations from the site of an injury or inflammation along clear and unclear pathways to the spinal cord and then on to higher centers

34

visceral pain

pain originating in the internal organs in the thorax, cranium, or abdomen