excersise 38 Flashcards


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1

Subdivisions of the MUCOSA layer of the alimentary canal

1. epithelium
2. lamina propria
3. muscularis mucosa

2

Major functions of the MUCOSA

absorption
secretion

3

Subdivisions of the SUBMUCOSA layer of alimentary canal

not applicable

4

Major functions of the SUBMUCOSA of alimentary canal

vascular supply for mucosa; protection

5

Subdivisions of the MUSCULARIS EXTERNA

1. circular layer
2. longitudinal layer

6

major functions of the MUSCULARIS EXTERNA

churning; mixing; propulsion of food along the tract

7

subdivisions of the SEROSA OR ADVENTITIA

not applicable

8

major functions of SEROSA OR ADVENTITIA

protection & anchoring for adventitia; reduction of friction for abdominal organs by serosa

9

The tubelike digestive system canal that extends from the mouth to the anus is known as the ___ canal or the ______ tract

alimentary
GI

10

How is the muscularis externa of the stomach modified? How does this modification relate to the function of the stomach?

it has a 3rd (obliquely oriented) muscle layer; vigorous churning activity occurs here

11

What transition in epithelial type exists at the gastroesophageal junction? How doe the epithelia of these 2 organs relate to their specific functions?

Changes from strafified squamous (esophagus) to simple columnar (stomach). The esophagus is subjected to constant abrasion (stratified squamous is well adapted for this). The stomach has secretory (and some absorptive) functions and is better protected from acid

12

Differentiate between the colon and the large intestine

The large intestine includes the colon, but also includes the cecum, vermiform appendix, rectum, and anal canal

13

structure that suspends the small intestine from the posterior body wall

mesentary

14

fingerlike extensions of the intestinal mucosa that increase the surface area for absorption

villi

15

large collections of lymphoid tissue found in the submucosa of the small intestine

Peyers patches

16

deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa that extend completely or partially around the circumference of the small intestine

circular folds

17

2 regions that break down food stuffs mechanically

oral cavity
stomach

18

mobile organ that manipulates food in the mouth and initiates swallowing

tongue

19

conduit for both air and food

pharynx

20

3 structures continuous with and representing modifications of the peritoneum

greater omentum
lesser omentum
mesentary

21

the "gullet"; no digestive/ absorptive function

esophagus

22

folds of the gastric mucosa

rugae

23

sacculations of the large intestine

haustra

24

projections of the plasma membrnae of a mucosal epithelial cell

microvilli

25

valve at the junction of the small and large intestines

ileocecal valve

26

primary region of food and water absorption

small intestine

27

membrane securing the tongue to the floor of the mouth

frenulum

28

absorbs water and forms feces

large intestine

29

area between the teeth and lips/cheeks

vestibule

30

wormlike sac that outpockets from the cecum

appendix

31

initiates protein digestion

stomach

32

structure attached to the lesser curvature of the stomach

lesser omentum

33

organ distal to the stomach

small intestine

34

valve controlling food movement from the stomach to the duodenum

pyloric valve

35

posterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity

soft palate

36

location of the hepatopancreatic sphincter through with pancreatic secretions and bile pass

small intestine

37

serous lining of the abdominal cavity wall

parietal peritoneum

38

principal site for synthesis of Vk by microorganisms

large intestine

39

region containing 2 sphincters through which feces are expelled from the body

anus

40

bone supported anterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity

hard palate

41

visible portion of the tooth in situ

clinical crown

42

material covering the tooth root

cementum

43

hardest substance in the body

enamel

44

attaches the tooth to bone and surrounding alveolar structures

periodontal ligament

45

portion of the tooth embedded in bone

root

46

forms the major portion of tooth structure; similar to bone

dentin

47

produces dentin

odontoblast

48

site of blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics

pulp

49

entire portion of the tooth covered with enamel

anatomical crown

50

in the human the number of deciduous teeth is _; the number of permanent teeth is _

20, 32

51

what teeth are the "wisdom teeth"

the number 3 most posterior molars

52

produces mucus; found in the submucosa of the small intestine

duodenal glands

53

produce a product containing amylase that begins starch breakdown in the mouth

salivary glands

54

produce a whole spectrum of enzymes and an alkaline fluid that is secreted into the duodenum

pancreas

55

produce bile that it secretes into the duodenum via the bile duct

liver

56

produces HCl and pepsinogen

gastric glands

57

found in the mucosa of the small intestine; produces intestinal juice

intestinal crypts

58

which of the salivary glands produces a secretion that is mainly serous?

Parotid

59

what is the role of the gallbladder?

to store and concentrate bile made by the liver

60

name 3 structures always found in the portal triad regions of the liver

branch of the bile duct
branch of hepatic artery
branch of hepatic portal vein

61

where would you expect to find kupffer cells of the liver?what is their function?

lining the sinusoids; phagocytosis of debris and worn-out blood cells

62

why is the liver so dark red in the living animal

bc it is a blood reservoir

63

the pancreas has 2 major populations of secretory cells- those in the islets and the acinar cells. which population serves the digestive process?

acinar cells