Data Models

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1

3 Vs

Three basic characteristics of Big data databases: volume, velocity and variety

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American National Standards Institute(ANSI)

The group that accepted the DBTG recommendations and augmented database standards in 1975 through its SPARC committee

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Attribute

A characteristic of an entity or object. an attribute has a name and a data type.

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Big Data

A movement to find new and better ways to manage large amounts of web-generated data and derive business insight from it, while simultaneously providing high performance and scalability at a reasonable cost

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Business Rule

a describtion of a policy, procedure or principle within an organization. for example,a pilot cannot be on duty for more than ten hours during a 24 hour period.

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Chen Notation

see er relationship model.

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Class

a collection of similar objects with shard structure(attributes) and behaviors(methods). A class encapsulates and object's data representation and a method's implementation. Classes are organized in a class hierarchy

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Class Diagram

a diagram used to represent data and their relationships in UML object notation

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Class diagram notation

the set of symbols used in creation of class diagrams

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class hierarchy

the organization of classes in a hierarchical tree in which each parent class is a superclass and eac child class is a subclass.

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client node

one of three types of nodes used in Hadoop Distribution file system. Acts as the interface between the user application and the HDFS.

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conceptual model

The output of the conceptual design process. Provides a global view of an entire database and describes the main data objects avoiding details

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conceptual schema

a representation of the conceptual model, usually expressed graphically

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connectivity

the classification of the relationship between entities

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constraint

a restriction placed on data, usually expressed in the form of rules.

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crow's foot notation

a representation of the entity relationship diagram that uses a three-pronged symbol to represent the "many" sides of the relationship

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data definition language (ddl)

the language that allows a database administrator to define the database structure, schema, and subschema

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data manipulation language

the set of commands that allows an end user to manipulate the data in the database

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data model

a representation usually graphic of a complex "real-world" data structure.

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data modeling

The process of creating a specific data model for a determined problem domain

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data node

Stores fixed-sized data blocks

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entity

a person, place, thing, concept or event for which data can be stored

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entity instance

in ER modeling a specific table row

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entity occurrence

In Er modeling a specific table row (same as instance)

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entity relationship (er) model

A data model that describes relationships among entities at the conceptual level with help of ER diagrams

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entity relationship diagram (ERD)

a diagram that depicts an entity relationship models entities, attributes and relations

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entity set

in a relational model, a group of related entities

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eventual consistency

a model for a database consistency in which updates to the database will propagate through the system so that all data copies will be consistent eventually

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extended relational data model

a model that includes the object-oriented model's best features in an inherently simpler relational database structural environment

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extensible markup language

a metalanguage used to represent and manipulate data elements.

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external model

The applications programmer's view of the data enviroment.

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external schema

the specific representation of an external view; the end users view of the data enviroment

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Hadoop

a java based open source high speed fault tolerant distributed storage and computational framework. Uses low-cost hardware to create clusters of thousands of computer nodes to store and process data

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Hadoop Distributed File system

a highly distributed fault tolerant storage system designed to manage large amounts of data at high speeds

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hardware independence

a condition in which a model does not depend on the hardware used in the model's implementation. Therefore changes in the hardware will have no effect on the database design at the conceptual level

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hierarchical model

an early database model whose basic concepts and characteristics formed the basis of subsequent database development

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Inheritance

in the object-oriented data model the ability of an object to inherit data structure and methods of the classes above it in the class hierarchy

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Internal Model

a level of data abstraction that adapts the conceptual model to a specific DBMS model for implementaion.

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Internal Schema

a representation of an internal model using the database constructs supported by the chosen database

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Key-Value

a data model based on a structure composed of two data elements: a key and a value, in which every key has a corresponding value or set of values

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Logical design

a stage in the design phase that matches the conceptual design to the requirements of the selected DBMS and is therefore software-dependent

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logical independence

a condition in which the internal model can be changed without affecting the conceptual model

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MapReduce

an open source application programming interface that provides fast data analytic services

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Many-to-many relationships

association among two or more entities in which one occurrence of an entity is associated with many occurrences of a related entity and one occurrence of the related entity is associated with many occurrences of the first entity

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method

in the object-oriented data model a named set of instructions to preform an action. methods represent real world actions and are invoked through messages

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name node

the name node stores all the metadata about the file system

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network model

a data model standard created in the late 1960's that represented data as a collections of record types and relationships as predefined sets with an owner record type and a member record type in a 1:M relationship

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NOSQl

a new generation of database management systems that is not based on the traditional relational database model

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object

an abstract representation of a real world entity that has a unique identity embedded properties and the ability to interact with other objects by itself

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object/relational database management system

this model includes best features within an inherently simpler relational database structure

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object-oriented data model

a data model whose basic modeling structure is an object

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object-oriented database management system

data management software used to manage data in a object-oriented database model

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one-to-many relationship

associations among two or more entities that are used by data models. One entity instance is associated with many instances of related entities

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one-to-one relationship

One entity instance is associated with only one instance of related entity

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physical independence

a condition in which the physical model can be changed without affecting the internal model

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physical model

a model in which physical characteristics such as location path and format are described for the data. both hardware and software dependent

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relation

in relational database model an entity set. relations are implemented as tables. relations are related to each other through the sharing of a common entity charcteristic

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relational database management systems

translates a user's logical requests into commands that physically locate and retrieve the requested data.

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relational diagram

a graphical representation of a relational database' entities the attributes within those entities and the relationships among the entities

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relational model

based on a mathematical set theory and represents data as independent relations

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relationship

an association between entities

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schema

a logical grouping of database objects, such as tables, indexes views and queries that are related to each other. belongs to a single user or application

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segment

in the hierarchical data model, the equivalent of a file system's record type

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semantic data model

modeling both data and their relationships in a single structure knows as an object.

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software independence

a property of any model or application that does not depend on the software used to implement it

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sparse data

a case in which the number of table attributes is very large but the number of actual data instances is low

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subschema

in the network model, portions of the database "seen" by the application programs that produce the desired information from the data in the database

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table

a matrix composed of intersecting rows(entities) and columns(attributes) that represents an entity set in the relational model

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tuple

in the relational model a table row

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unified modeling langauge

a language based on object-oriented concepts that provides tools such as diagrams and symbols to graphically model a system.