Chp. 52

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Campbell Biology
Chapter 52
Nesterovitch
updated 3 years ago by mrgn_reed95
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1

_________ is the scientific study of organisms interactions between themselves and the environment.

Ecology

2

A _________ is a group of individuals of the same species living in an area.

population

3

A __________ community is a group of populations of different species in an area.

community

4

An _________ is the community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which they interact.

ecosystem

5

_________ are major types of ecosystems; cover large areas.

Biomes

6

The ________ is the global ecosystem, the sum of all the plants ecosystem.

biosphere

7

__________ ecology studies how an organisms structure, physiology, and (for animals) behavior meet environmental challenges.

Organismal

8

__________ ecology focuses on factors affecting how many individuals of a species live in an area.

Population

9

__________ ecology deals with the whole array of interacting species in a community.

Community

10

__________ ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling among the various biotic and abiotic components.

Ecosystem

11

________ (seascape) ecology deals with arrays of ecosystems and how they are arranged and interrelated in a geographic region.

Landscape

12

The _________ is the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planets ecosystems.

biosphere

13

________ is movement of individuals away from centers of high population density or from their area of origin.

Dispersal

14

Dispersal contributes to global ________ or organisms.

distribution

15

Which of the following abiotic factors has the greatest influence on the metabolic rates of plants and animals?
A) water
B) wind
C) temperature
D) rocks and soil
E) disturbances

Answer: C

16

Which of the examples below provides appropriate abiotic and biotic factors that might determine the distribution of the species in question?
A) the amount of nitrate and phosphate in the soil, and wildflower abundance and diversity
B) the number of frost-free days, and competition between species of introduced grasses and native alpine grasses
C) increased predation and decreased food availability, and a prairie dog population after a prairie fire
D) available sunlight and increased salinity in the top few meters of the ocean, and the abundance and diversity of phytoplankton communities
E) the pH and dissolved oxygen concentration, and the streams in which brook trout can live

Answer: B

17

A certain species of pine tree survives only in scattered locations at elevations above 2,800 m in the western United States. To understand why this tree grows only in these specific places, an ecologist should
A) conclude that lower elevations are limiting to the survival of this species.
B) study the anatomy and physiology of this species.
C) investigate the various biotic and abiotic factors that are unique to high altitude.
D) analyze the soils found in the vicinity of these trees, looking for unique chemicals that may support their growth.
E) collect data on temperature, wind, and precipitation at several of these locations for a year.

Answer: C

18

Species introduced by humans to new geographic locations
A) are usually successful in colonizing the area.
B) always spread because they encounter none of their natural predators.
C) increase the diversity and therefore the stability of the ecosystem.
D) can outcompete and displace native species for biotic and abiotic resources.
E) are always considered pests by ecologists.

Answer: D

19
card image

Which zone experiences the most abiotic change over a 24-hour period?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

Answer: A

20

Which of the following are important biotic factors that can affect the structure and organization of biological communities?
A) precipitation, wind
B) nutrient availability, soil pH
C) predation, competition
D) temperature, water
E) light intensity, seasonality

Answer: D

21

________ are major life zones characterized by vegetation type (terrestrial biomes) or physical environment (aquatic biomes).

Biomes

22

__________ Lakes are nutrient-poor and generally oxygen-rich.

Oligotrophic

23

___________ Lakes are nutrient-rich and often depleted of oxygen if ice covered in winter.

Eutrophic

24

A ________ is habitat that is inundated by water at least some of the time and that supports plants adapted water-saturated soil.

wetland

25

An _________ is a transition area between river and sea.

estuary

26

An ________ zone is periodically submerged and exposed by the tides.

intertidal

27

The ________ ________ biome is constantly mixed by wind-driven oceanic currents.

oceanic pelagic

28

______ _______ are formed from the calcium carbonate skeletons of corals (cnidarians).

coral reefs

29

The ______ _______ zone consists of the seafloor below the surface waters of the coastal, or neritic, zone and the offshore pelagic zone.

marine benthic

30

Which of the following levels of ecological organization is arranged in the correct sequence from most to least inclusive?
A) community, ecosystem, individual, population
B) ecosystem, community, population, individual
C) population, ecosystem, individual, community
D) individual, population, community, ecosystem
E) individual, community, population, ecosystem

Answer: B

31

Which of the following examples of an ecological effect leading to an evolutionary effect is most correct?
A) When seeds are not plentiful, trees produce more seeds.
B) A few organisms of a larger population survive a drought and then these survivors emigrate to less arid environments.
C) A few individuals with denser fur survive the coldest days of an ice age, and the reproducing survivors of the ice age all have long fur.
D) Fish that swim the fastest in running water catch the most prey and more easily escape predation.
E) The insects that spend the most time exposed to sunlight have the most mutations.

Answer: C

32

Which of the following might be an investigation of microclimate?
A) the effect of ambient temperature on the onset of caribou migration
B) the seasonal population fluctuation of nurse sharks in coral reef communities
C) competitive interactions between various species of songbirds during spring migration
D) the effect of sunlight intensity on species composition in a decaying rat carcass
E) the effect of different nitrogen applications on corn productivity

Answer: D

33

Which of the following choices includes all of the others in creating global terrestrial climates?
A) differential heating of Earth's surface
B) ocean currents
C) global wind patterns
D) evaporation of water from ocean surfaces
E) Earth's rotation on its axis

Answer: A

34

Why is the climate drier on the leeward side of mountain ranges that are subjected to prevailing winds?
A) Deserts usually are found on the leeward side of mountain ranges.
B) The sun illuminates the leeward side of mountain ranges at a more direct angle, converting to heat energy, which evaporates most of the water present.
C) Pushed by the prevailing winds on the windward side, air is forced to rise, cool, condense, and drop its precipitation, leaving only dry air to descend the leeward side.
D) Air masses pushed by the prevailing winds are stopped by mountain ranges and the moisture is used up in the stagnant air masses on the leeward side.
E) More organisms live on the sheltered, leeward side of mountain ranges where their utilization of water lowers the amount available when compared to the windward side.

Answer: C

35

Which statement describes how climate might change if Earth was 75% land and 25% water?
A) Terrestrial ecosystems would likely experience more precipitation.
B) Earth's daytime temperatures would be higher and nighttime temperatures lower.
C) Summers would be longer and winters shorter at midlatitude locations.
D) Earth would experience an unprecedented global warming.
E) More terrestrial microclimates would be created because of daily fluctuations in climate.

Answer: B

36

In mountainous areas of western North America, north-facing slopes would be expected to
A) receive more sunlight than similar southern exposures.
B) be warmer and drier than comparable southern exposed slopes.
C) consistently be steeper than southern exposures.
D) support biological communities similar to those found at lower elevations on similar south-facing slopes.
E) support biological communities similar to those found at higher elevations on similar south-facing slopes.

Answer: E

37

Deserts typically occur in a band at 20 degrees north and south latitude because
A) descending air masses tend to be cool and dry.
B) trade winds have a little moisture.
C) moisture-laden air is heavier than dry air and is not carried to these latitudes.
D) ascending air tends to be moist.
E) these locations get the most intense solar radiation of any location on Earth.

Answer: A

38

The main reason polar regions are cooler than the equator is that
A) there is more ice at the poles.
B) sunlight strikes the poles at a lower angle.
C) the poles are farther from the sun.
D) the polar atmosphere is thinner and contains fewer greenhouse gases.
E) the poles are permanently tilted away from the sun.

Answer: B

39

Which of the following environmental features might influence microclimates?
A) forest canopy
B) freshly plowed field
C) log on the forest floor
D) large boulder
E) All of the options are correct.

Answer: E

40

The success with which plants extend their range northward following glacial retreat is best determined by
A) whether there is simultaneous migration of herbivores.
B) their tolerance to shade.
C) their seed dispersal rate.
D) their size.
E) their growth rate.

Answer: C

41

As climate changes because of global warming, species' ranges in the northern hemisphere may move northward, using effective reproductive adaptations to disperse their seeds. The trees that are most likely to avoid extinction in such an environment are those that
A) have seeds that are easily dispersed by wind or animals.
B) have thin seed coats.
C) produce well-provisioned seeds.
D) have seeds that become viable only after a forest fire.
E) disperse many seeds in close proximity to the parent tree.

Answer: A

42

If global warming continues at its present rate, which biomes will likely take the place of the coniferous forest (taiga)?
A) tundra and polar ice
B) temperate broadleaf forest and grassland
C) desert and chaparral
D) tropical forest and savanna
E) chaparral and temperate broadleaf forest

Answer: B

43

Which of the following are important biotic factors that can affect the structure and organization of biological communities?
A) precipitation, wind
B) nutrient availability, soil pH
C) predation, competition
D) temperature, water
E) light intensity, seasonality

Answer: C

44

Which of the following can be said about light in aquatic environments?
A) Water selectively reflects and absorbs certain wavelengths of light.
B) Photosynthetic organisms that live in deep water probably use red light.
C) Longer wavelengths penetrate to greater depths.
D) Light penetration seldom limits the distribution of photosynthetic species.
E) Most photosynthetic organisms avoid the surface where the light is too intense.

Answer: A

45

Coral reefs can be found on the southern east coast of the United States but not at similar latitudes on the southern west coast. Differences in which of the following most likely account for this?
A) sunlight intensity
B) precipitation
C) day length
D) ocean currents
E) salinity

Answer: D

46

What is the limiting factor for the growth of trees in the tundra?
A) low precipitation
B) cold temperatures
C) insufficient minerals in bedrock
D) pH of soils
E) permafrost

Answer: E

47

Generally speaking, deserts are located in places where air masses are usually
A) tropical.
B) humid.
C) rising.
D) descending.
E) expanding.

Answer: D

48

Turnover of water in temperate lakes during the spring and fall is made possible by which of the following?
A) warm, less dense water layered at the top
B) cold, more dense water layered at the bottom
C) a distinct thermocline between less dense warm water and cold, dense water
D) the changes in the density of water as seasonal temperatures change
E) currents generated by nektonic animals

Answer: D

49

In temperate lakes, the surface water is replenished with nutrients during turnovers that occur in the
A) autumn and spring.
B) autumn and winter.
C) spring and summer.
D) summer and winter.
E) summer and autumn.

Answer: A

50

Which of the following is responsible for the differences in summer and winter temperature stratification of deep temperate zone lakes?
A) Water is densest at 4°C.
B) Oxygen is most abundant in deeper waters.
C) Winter ice sinks in the summer.
D) Stratification is caused by a thermocline.
E) Stratification always follows the fall and spring turnovers.

Answer: A

51

Imagine that a deep temperate zone lake did not "turn over" during the spring and fall seasons. Based on the physical and biological properties of limnetic ecosystems, what would be the difference from normal seasonal turnover?
A) The lake would be uniformly cold during the winter and summer.
B) The lake would fail to freeze over in winter.
C) An algal bloom of algae would result every spring.
D) Lakes would suffer a nutrient depletion in surface layers.
E) The pH of the lake would become increasingly alkaline.

Answer: D

52

Which marine zone would have the lowest rates of primary productivity (photosynthesis)?
A) pelagic
B) abyssal
C) neritic
D) continental shelf
E) intertidal

Answer: B

53

If you are interested in observing a relatively simple community structure in a clear water lake, you would do well to choose diving into
A) an oligotrophic lake.
B) a eutrophic lake.
C) a relatively shallow lake.
D) a nutrient-rich lake.
E) a lake with consistently warm temperatures.

Answer: A

54

Which of the following statements about the ocean pelagic biome is true?
A) The ocean is a vast, deep storehouse that always provides sustenance; it is the next "frontier" for feeding humanity.
B) Because it is so immense, the pelagic ocean biome is globally uniform.
C) Globally, more photosynthesis occurs in the ocean neritic biome than in the pelagic biome.
D) Pelagic ocean photosynthetic activity is disproportionately low in relation to the size of the biome.
E) The most abundant animals are vertebrate fishes.

Answer: D

55

If a meteor impact or volcanic eruption injected a lot of dust into the atmosphere and reduced the sunlight reaching Earth's surface by 70% for one year, which of the following marine communities most likely would be least affected?
A) deep-sea vent
B) coral reef
C) intertidal
D) pelagic
E) estuary

Answer: A

56

Which of the examples below provides appropriate abiotic and biotic factors that might determine the distribution of the species in question?
A) the amount of nitrate and phosphate in the soil, and wildflower abundance and diversity
B) the number of frost-free days, and competition between species of introduced grasses and native alpine grasses
C) increased predation and decreased food availability, and a prairie dog population after a prairie fire
D) available sunlight and increased salinity in the top few meters of the ocean, and the abundance and diversity of phytoplankton communities
E) the pH and dissolved oxygen concentration, and the streams in which brook trout can live

Answer: B

57

A certain species of pine tree survives only in scattered locations at elevations above 2,800 m in the western United States. To understand why this tree grows only in these specific places, an ecologist should
A) conclude that lower elevations are limiting to the survival of this species.
B) study the anatomy and physiology of this species.
C) investigate the various biotic and abiotic factors that are unique to high altitude.
D) analyze the soils found in the vicinity of these trees, looking for unique chemicals that may support their growth.
E) collect data on temperature, wind, and precipitation at several of these locations for a year.

Answer: C

58

Species introduced by humans to new geographic locations
A) are usually successful in colonizing the area.
B) always spread because they encounter none of their natural predators.
C) increase the diversity and therefore the stability of the ecosystem.
D) can outcompete and displace native species for biotic and abiotic resources.
E) are always considered pests by ecologists.

Answer: D

59

Which of the following statements best describes the effect of climate on biome distribution?
A) Average annual temperature and precipitation are sufficient to predict which biome will be found in an area.
B) Seasonal fluctuation of temperature is not a limiting factor in biome distribution if areas have the same annual temperature and precipitation means.
C) Not only is the average climate important in determining biome distribution but so is the pattern of climatic variation.
D) Temperate forests and grasslands are different biomes because they receive a different quality and quantity of sunlight, even though they have essentially the same annual temperature and precipitation.
E) Correlation of climate with biome distribution is sufficient to determine the cause of biome patterns.

Answer: C

60

In the development of terrestrial biomes, which factor is most dependent on all the others?
A) the species of colonizing animals
B) prevailing temperature
C) prevailing rainfall
D) mineral nutrient availability
E) soil structure

Answer: A

61

Two plant species live in the same biome but on different continents. Although the two species are not at all closely related, they may appear quite similar as a result of
A) parallel evolution.
B) convergent evolution.
C) allopatric speciation.
D) introgression.
E) gene flow.

Answer: B

62

In which of the following terrestrial biome pairs are both parts dependent upon periodic burning?
A) tundra and coniferous forest
B) chaparral and savanna
C) desert and savanna
D) tropical forest and temperate broadleaf forest
E) grassland and tundra

Answer: B

63

In which community would organisms most likely have adaptations enabling them to respond to different photoperiods?
A) tropical forest
B) coral reef
C) savanna
D) temperate forest
E) abyssal

Answer: D

64

The growing season would generally be shortest in which of the following biomes?
A) savanna
B) temperate broadleaf forest
C) temperate grassland
D) tropical rain forest
E) coniferous forest

Answer: E

65

Trees are not usually found in the tundra biome because of
A) insufficient annual precipitation.
B) acidic soils.
C) extreme winter temperatures.
D) overbrowsing by musk ox and caribou.
E) permafrost.

Answer: E

66
card image

Which zone has the lowest biomass per unit of area?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

Answer: D

67
card image

Which zone is comprised largely of detritus-feeding organisms?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

Answer: C

68
card image

Which zone produces the most global oxygen gas?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

Answer: B

69
card image

Which zone has a condition of constant temperature?
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

Answer: C

70

Which of the following areas of study focuses on the exchange of energy, organisms, and materials between ecosystems?
A) population ecology
B) organismal ecology
C) landscape ecology
D) ecosystem ecology
E) community ecology

Answer: C

71

Which lake zone would be absent in a very shallow lake?
A) benthic zone
B) aphotic zone
C) pelagic zone
D) littoral zone
E) limnetic zone

Answer: B

72

Which of the following is true with respect to oligotrophic lakes and eutrophic lakes?
A) Oligotrophic lakes are more subject to oxygen depletion.
B) Rates of photosynthesis are lower in eutrophic lakes.
C) Eutrophic lake water contains lower concentrations of nutrients.
D) Eutrophic lakes are richer in nutrients.
E) Sediments in oligotrophic lakes contain larger amounts of decomposable organic matter.

Answer: D

73

Which of the following biomes is correctly paired with the description of its climate?
A) savanna–low temperature, precipitation uniform during the year
B) tundra–long summers, mild winters
C) temperate broadleaf forest–relatively short growing season, mild winters
D) temperate grasslands–relatively warm winters, most rainfall in summer
E) tropical forests–nearly constant day length and temperature

Answer: E

74

Which of the following is characteristic of most terrestrial biomes?
A) annual average rainfall in excess of 250 cm
B) a distribution predicted almost entirely by rock and soil patterns
C) clear boundaries between adjacent biomes
D) vegetation demonstrating vertical layering
E) cold winter months

Answer: D

75

The oceans affect the biosphere in all of the following ways except
A) producing a substantial amount of the biosphere's oxygen.
B) removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
C) moderating the climate of terrestrial biomes.
D) regulating the pH of freshwater biomes and terrestrial groundwater.
E) being the source of most of Earth's rainfall.

Answer: D

76

Which statement about dispersal is false?
A) Dispersal is a common component of the life cycles of plants and animals.
B) Colonization of devastated areas after floods or volcanic eruptions depends on dispersal.
C) Dispersal occurs only on an evolutionary time scale.
D) Seeds are important dispersal stages in the life cycles of most flowering plants.
E) The ability to disperse can expand the geographic distribution of a species.

Answer: C

77

Studying species transplants is a way that ecologists
A) determine the abundance of a species in a specified area.
B) determine the distribution of a species in a specified area.
C) develop mathematical models for distribution and abundance of organisms.
D) determine if dispersal is a key factor in limiting distribution of organisms.
E) consolidate a landscape region into a single ecosystem.

Answer: D

78

Which of the following environmental features might influence microclimates?
A) forest canopy
B) freshly plowed field
C) log on the forest floor
D) large boulder
E) All of the options are correct.

Answer: E

79

The main reason polar regions are cooler than the equator is that
A) there is more ice at the poles.
B) sunlight strikes the poles at a lower angle.
C) the poles are farther from the sun.
D) the polar atmosphere is thinner and contains fewer greenhouse gases.
E) the poles are permanently tilted away from the sun.

Answer: B

80

Imagine some cosmic catastrophe jolts Earth so that its axis is perpendicular to the orbital plane between Earth and the sun. The most obvious effect of this change would be
A) the elimination of tides.
B) an increase in the length of night.
C) an increase in the length of a year.
D) a decrease in temperature at the equator.
E) the elimination of seasonal variation.

Answer: E