3 Anatomy Deep Back Muscles

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1

What is the function and what are the layers of the thoracolumbar fascia?

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Surrounds deep muscles of the back; anterior, middle, posterior

2

What are the superficial muscles of the deep back?

Erector Spinae

ILS

superficial deep back

Iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis

Spinotransversales

splenius capitis, splenius cervicis

3
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Muscles?

Function?

Spinotransversales muscles: splenius capitus and splenius cervicis

Contract bilaterally to extend neck, unilateral contraction to tilt neck to one side

4

Origin, insertion, nerve supply, blood supply of spinotransversales muscles?

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Splenius capitus

Origin: nuchal ligament on spinous processes (C7-T4)

Insertion: mastoid process and rough surface of occipital bone

Splenius cervicis

Origin: spinous processes (T3-T6)

Insertion: posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 to C3

Both

Nerve supply: dorsal rami of cervical spinal nerves (C5, 6, 7, 8)

Blood supply: occipital artery from external carotid artery

5

What are the muscles of the deep deep back?

Transversospinal

1. semispinalis (semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, semisplinalis thoracis), 2. multifudus, 3. rotatores

Intersegmental

interspinales, intertransversarii (levator costarum), suboccipital

Suboccipital

rectus capitis posterior major, rectus capitis posterior minor, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior

6

Function, origin, insertion, and innervation of the transversospinal muscles?

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Function as proprioceptors and for posture

Semisplinalis

Origin: all along transverse processes (T)

Insertion:

capitis-occipital bone

cervicis-spinous process

thoracis-spinous process

Innervation: dorsal rami aka posterior rami

7

Function, origin, insertion, and innervation of the intersegmental muscles?

Function as sensory neurons for proprioception

Interspinales:

Origin/Insertion: spinous processes of C and L

Intertransversarii:

Origin/insertion: tubercles of C and L

Levatores costarum:

Origin: transverse processes C7-T11

Insertion: ribs

Action: elevates ribs

Innervation: dorsal rami

8

What are the four suboccipital muscles?

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rectus capitis posterior major

rectus capitis posterior minor

obliquus capitis superior

obliquus capitis inferior

9

What is the nerve supply and blood supply of the suboccipital muscles?

Nerve: suboccipital nerve or dorsal rami of C1

Blood supply: vertebral artery and deep descending branch of occipital artery

10

Origin, insertion, action of rectus capitis posterior minor?

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Origin

Tubercle on the posterior arch of the atlas

Insertion

Medial portion of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone

Action

assists with extension of the head, a postural muscle that monitors the position of the head.

11

Origin, insertion, action of rectus capitis posterior major?

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Origin

Tip of the spinous process of the axis

Insertion

Lateral aspect of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone

Action

assists with extension and rotation of the head, a postural muscle that monitors the position of the head.

12

Origin, insertion, action of the obliquus capitis superior?

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Origin

Upper part of the tip of the transverse process of the atlas

Insertion

Between the superior and inferior nuchal lines of the occipital bone

Action

assists with lateral flexion and extension, postural muscle that monitors the position of the head.

13

Origin, insertion, action of the obliquus capitis inferior?

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Origin

Base of spine and adjoining lamina of the axis

Insertion

Along the inferior aspect of the tip of the transverse process of the atlas

Action

Rotates the head to the same side as the muscle.

14

Type 1 Somatic Dysfunction

dysfunction caused by muscle that crosses multiple joints (ex: T3-T8 vertebra side bent and rotated right)

15

Type 2 Somatic Dysfunction

dysfunction caused by muscle that crosses adjacent joints, small muscles (ex: L1 vertebra is rotated on L2; side bent left and rotated left)