3 Anatomy Deep Back Muscles
What is the function and what are the layers of the thoracolumbar fascia?
Surrounds deep muscles of the back; anterior, middle, posterior
What are the superficial muscles of the deep back?
superficial deep back
Iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis
splenius capitis, splenius cervicis
Spinotransversales muscles: splenius capitus and splenius cervicis
Contract bilaterally to extend neck, unilateral contraction to tilt neck to one side
Origin, insertion, nerve supply, blood supply of spinotransversales muscles?
Origin: nuchal ligament on spinous processes (C7-T4)
Insertion: mastoid process and rough surface of occipital bone
Origin: spinous processes (T3-T6)
Insertion: posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 to C3
Nerve supply: dorsal rami of cervical spinal nerves (C5, 6, 7, 8)
Blood supply: occipital artery from external carotid artery
What are the muscles of the deep deep back?
1. semispinalis (semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, semisplinalis thoracis), 2. multifudus, 3. rotatores
interspinales, intertransversarii (levator costarum), suboccipital
rectus capitis posterior major, rectus capitis posterior minor, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior
Function, origin, insertion, and innervation of the transversospinal muscles?
Function as proprioceptors and for posture
Origin: all along transverse processes (T)
Innervation: dorsal rami aka posterior rami
Function, origin, insertion, and innervation of the intersegmental muscles?
Function as sensory neurons for proprioception
Origin/Insertion: spinous processes of C and L
Origin/insertion: tubercles of C and L
Origin: transverse processes C7-T11
Action: elevates ribs
Innervation: dorsal rami
What are the four suboccipital muscles?
rectus capitis posterior major
rectus capitis posterior minor
obliquus capitis superior
obliquus capitis inferior
What is the nerve supply and blood supply of the suboccipital muscles?
Nerve: suboccipital nerve or dorsal rami of C1
Blood supply: vertebral artery and deep descending branch of occipital artery
Origin, insertion, action of rectus capitis posterior minor?
Tubercle on the posterior arch of the atlas
Medial portion of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone
assists with extension of the head, a postural muscle that monitors the position of the head.
Origin, insertion, action of rectus capitis posterior major?
Tip of the spinous process of the axis
Lateral aspect of the inferior nuchal line of the occipital bone
assists with extension and rotation of the head, a postural muscle that monitors the position of the head.
Origin, insertion, action of the obliquus capitis superior?
Upper part of the tip of the transverse process of the atlas
Between the superior and inferior nuchal lines of the occipital bone
assists with lateral flexion and extension, postural muscle that monitors the position of the head.
Origin, insertion, action of the obliquus capitis inferior?
Base of spine and adjoining lamina of the axis
Along the inferior aspect of the tip of the transverse process of the atlas
Rotates the head to the same side as the muscle.
Type 1 Somatic Dysfunction
dysfunction caused by muscle that crosses multiple joints (ex: T3-T8 vertebra side bent and rotated right)
Type 2 Somatic Dysfunction
dysfunction caused by muscle that crosses adjacent joints, small muscles (ex: L1 vertebra is rotated on L2; side bent left and rotated left)