chapter 4-6

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1

Bacteria

small, single-celled microorganisms with a cell wall and an atypical nucleus that lacks a membrane; they commonly multiply by cell division

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bacteri/o

bacteria

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bacterial

pertaining to or caused by bacteria

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norma flora

bacteria that live with in our body not causing any harm

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baccilli

rod shaped bacteria

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cocci

aphere shaped bacteria

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spirochetes & spirilla

spiral shaped bacteria

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vibrios

common shaped bacteria

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gram stain

special staining technique

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aer/o

oxygen or air

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aerobic

the need for oxygen

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obligate aerobes

bacteria that require oxygen to grow and are called

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anaerobes

bacteria that will not grow in the presence of oxygen

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facultative organisms

Bacteria that can adapt and grow under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions are called

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Bacilli (sing., bacillus)

rod-shaped bacteria.

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bacill/o

The combining form that indicates bacilli

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Escherichia coli

E. coli, is a gram-negative bacillus as seen in this microscopic appearance of a Gram stained preparation

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AFB

abbreviation for acid-fast bacillus

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Clostridium tetani

bacterium that causes tetanus

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tetanus

potentially lethal infection of the central nervous system that is usually contracted through a wound.

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diplococci

When cocci occur in pairs

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streptococci.

Cocci that occur in chains are called

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strept/o

twisted

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Streptococcal

pertaining to or related to streptococci

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streptococcal pharyngitis

inflammation of the throat

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pharyng/o

throat

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Staphylococcus

spheroid bacteria that occur in clusters

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Staphyl/o

clusterr

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uvula

soft tissue projection that hangs down at the back of the roof of the mouth.

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Staphylococcal

pertaining to or related to staphylococci and is sometimes referred to in the shortened form "staph

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spirilla and spirochetes

spiral-shaped bacteria

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The spirochete called Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of the STD

syphilis

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A special technique used to identify these spirochetes in a sample of fluid or tissue from the painless sore is called

dark-field microscopy

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chancre

the primary lesion of syphilis and occurs at the entry site of the infection.

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Vibrios

comma-shaped bacteria that are responsible for several kinds of gastrointestinal infections

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gastroenteritis

an inflammation of the stomach and intestines.

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Protozoa (sing., protozoan)

are complex single-celled animals that generally exist as free-living organisms;

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trichomoniasis.

an infection of the genitourinary tract by the protozoan Trichomonas, most often transmitted by sexual intercourse

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Viruses

subcellular organisms and are among the smallest known disease-causing microorganisms.

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virion

fully developed viral particle

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capsid

outer protein coating

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Epstein-Barr virus,

infectious mononucleosis, and varicella, which causes chicken pox and herpes zoster (shingles).

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infection

The invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms is called

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communicable

contagious

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Vehicles

substances such as contaminated food, blood, or water

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Fomites

objects that are contaminated, such as a spoon or a tissue.

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systemic

pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole

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sept/i and sept/o

refer to sepsis, the presence of microorganisms

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Septic

pertaining to infection

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bacteremia

to the condition of bacteria in the blood

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septicemia

a systemic infection in which pathogenic microorganisms are present in the circulating bloodstream, having spread from an infection in any part of the body

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Prophylaxis

refers to an intervention aimed at prevention of or protection against disease

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-phylaxis

protection

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Prophylactic

pertaining to prophylaxis.

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bacteriostatic substance

one that controls or inhibits the growth of bacteria

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-cidal

pertains to killing

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bacteriociday agent

one that controls o inhibits the growth of bacteria