metabolism and nurtrtion
MAJOR NUTRIENTS NEEDED FOR THE HUMAN BODY TO FUNCTION PROPERLY
what are Macronutrients?
lipids ( fates)
what are Micronutrients
nutrients that must be obtained from the diet. These cannot be
made by the body.
what vitamin is made in the skin?
what vitamins are Antioxidants Vitamins
vitamins C, E, and A
These are primarily used as energy sources in the human body.
monosaccharide glucose is the major energy source in the human body. Cells
are capable of converting glucose into ATP.
The bulk of the carbohydrates that humans consume are derived from what plants
fruits and sugar cane
These are typically found in animal products
what play some
critical roles in the body. For example, they help the body absorb fat-soluble
vitamins and they help to build myelin sheaths and cell membranes.
Adipose or fat tissue also serves as a source of stored energy and it
pad, cushion and protect body structures.
These are composed of amino acids that are covalently bonded together
Humans obtain their proteins and essential amino acids from a variety
organic compounds that are needed to help the body use the above nutrients.
Most vitamins function as
which vitamins are produced by intestinal
Vitamins are classified as being either
water-soluble or fat soluble
what vitamins are absorbed with water from the gastrointestinal tract.
water soluble vitamin
what are some water soluble vitamins
vitamin B and vitamin C
what vitamin bind to ingested lipids and are absorbed along
these compounds in the G.I. Tract. Vitamins A, D, E, and K
fat soluble vitamin
large molecules from small ones
hydrolysis of complex structures to simpler ones
Most carbohydrates contain what component?
Glucose is metabolized via what?
aerobic cellular respiration
what are the three aerobic cellular respiration process?
the kreb's cycle
Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions
–Oxidized substances lose electrons and energy
–Reduced substances gain electrons and energy
involve the gain of oxygen or loss of hydrogen atoms
what glucose pathway produce the less amount of ATP
glycolysis and the kreb's cycle
what glucose pathway produce the greatest amount of ATP
Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation-
what is also call glycolytic pathway
fat-splitting.” This releases lipids into the blood. This fat can
metabolized to generate ATP. This occurs when ATP and glucose levels are low
in the blood.
lipid synthesis, this occurs when ATP and glucose levels are high
what forms glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors: occurring in the liver
Three events of amino acid degradation
Keto acid modification
Postabsorptive state is also called
highest protein content: good cholesterol- returned to liver : apple shape
bad cholesterol – pear shape
is thought to protect against heart disease because it takes cholesterol out of blood
total heat produced by chemical reactions and mechanical work of body
total metabolic rate
Rate of kilocalorie consumption to fuel all ongoing activities
is the energy (kilocalories consumed) that the body uses to perform only its most essential activities.
basal metabolic rate