metabolism and nurtrtion

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1

MAJOR NUTRIENTS NEEDED FOR THE HUMAN BODY TO FUNCTION PROPERLY

carbohydrates

lipid (fats)

Proteins

vitamins

minerals

2

what are Macronutrients?

carbohydrates

lipids ( fates)

proteins

3

what are Micronutrients

vitamins

minerals

4

essential nutrients

nutrients that must be obtained from the diet. These cannot be
made by the body.

5

what vitamin is made in the skin?

vitamin D

6

what vitamins are Antioxidants Vitamins

vitamins C, E, and A

7

carbohydrates

These are primarily used as energy sources in the human body. The
monosaccharide glucose is the major energy source in the human body. Cells
are capable of converting glucose into ATP.

8

The bulk of the carbohydrates that humans consume are derived from what plants

fruits and sugar cane

9

lipids

fat

These are typically found in animal products

10

what play some
critical roles in the body. For example, they help the body absorb fat-soluble
vitamins and they help to build myelin sheaths and cell membranes.

lipids

11

Adipose or fat tissue also serves as a source of stored energy and it helps to
pad, cushion and protect body structures.

lipids

12

These are composed of amino acids that are covalently bonded together

proteins

13

Humans obtain their proteins and essential amino acids from a variety of food
sources, including

meat

egg

fish

milk

14

vitamins

organic compounds that are needed to help the body use the above nutrients.

15

Most vitamins function as

coenzymes

16

which vitamins are produced by intestinal
bacteria).

vitamin B

vitamin K

17

Vitamins are classified as being either

water-soluble or fat soluble

18

what vitamins are absorbed with water from the gastrointestinal tract.

water soluble vitamin

19

what are some water soluble vitamins

vitamin B and vitamin C

20

what vitamin bind to ingested lipids and are absorbed along with
these compounds in the G.I. Tract. Vitamins A, D, E, and K

fat soluble vitamin

21

anabolism

large molecules from small ones

22

catabolism

hydrolysis of complex structures to simpler ones

23

Most carbohydrates contain what component?

glucose

24

Glucose is metabolized via what?

aerobic cellular respiration

25

what are the three aerobic cellular respiration process?

glycolysis

the kreb's cycle

electron transport

26

Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions

–Oxidized substances lose electrons and energy

–Reduced substances gain electrons and energy

27

Oxidation reactions:

involve the gain of oxygen or loss of hydrogen atoms

28

what glucose pathway produce the less amount of ATP

glycolysis and the kreb's cycle

29

what glucose pathway produce the greatest amount of ATP

Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation-

30

what is also call glycolytic pathway

glycolysis

31

fat-splitting.” This releases lipids into the blood. This fat can then be
metabolized to generate ATP. This occurs when ATP and glucose levels are low
in the blood.

lipolysis

32

lipid synthesis, this occurs when ATP and glucose levels are high in
the body.

lipogenesis

33

what forms glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors: occurring in the liver

gluconeogensis

34

Three events of amino acid degradation

Transamination
Oxidative deamination
Keto acid modification

35

Postabsorptive state is also called

fasting state

36

HDL

highest protein content: good cholesterol- returned to liver : apple shape

37

LDL

bad cholesterol – pear shape

38

is thought to protect against heart disease because it takes cholesterol out of blood

HDL

39

metabolic rate

total heat produced by chemical reactions and mechanical work of body

40

total metabolic rate

Rate of kilocalorie consumption to fuel all ongoing activities

41

is the energy (kilocalories consumed) that the body uses to perform only its most essential activities.

basal metabolic rate