Exam 2 Review
__________ are heterotrophs that ingest their food, multicellular eukaryotes, and lack cells walls (NOT cell membranes)
This is an example of:
This is an example of:
In bilateral symmetry, the top side is referred to as the ______.
In bilateral symmetry, the bottom side is referred to as the ________.
In bilateral symmetry, the head is referred to as the _______.
In bilateral symmetry, the tail is referred to as the ________.
_________ are collection of specialized cells isolated from other tissues and specialized for particular function.
Tissues are developed from three _____ ______: Ectoderm, Endoderm, and Mesoderm.
________ is the germ layer covering the embryo surface.
________ is the inner most germ layer and lines the developing digestive tube, called the archenteron.
__________ have an intervening third germ layer- the mesoderm layer; this includes all bilaterians.
_________ are animals that have just the Ectoderm and Endoderm layers.
________ are animals that posses a true coelem (body cavity)
A _________ is a body cavity derived from the mesoderm and endoderm.
Triploblastic animals that posses a pseudocoelm are called __________.
Triploblastic animals that lack a body cavity are called __________.
In __________ development, cleavage is spiral and determinate.
in __________ development, cleavage is radial and indeterminate.
In protostome development, the blastopore becomes the _______.
In deuterostome development, the blastopore becomes the _______.
__________ (segmented worms) have bodies composed of a series of fused rings.
___________: class of Annelida, named for relatively sparse chaetae, bristles made of chitin, include earthworms and a variety of aquatic species, and have a closed circulatory system.
_________: class of Annelida, have paddle-like parapodia that work as gills and aid in locomotion.
________: (leeches), a class of Annelida, and are blood sucking parasites.
_________ ( roundworms): are pseudocoelomates, and found in most aquatic habitats, in the soil, in most tissues of plants, and in cody fluids and tissues of animals. have an alimentary canal, but lack a circulatory system, reproduction is usually sexual, by internal fertilization, and are important parasites of plants and animals.
Two out of every three known species of animals are __________. They are found in nearly all habitats of the biosphere. have an open circulatory system and alimentary canal, reproduce internally sexually with separate sexes.
The body of Arthropods are completely covered by the ________, an exoskeleton made of chitin.
_________: when an anthropoid grows, it molts its exoskeleton.
________ is one key to the great success of insects.
-sea stars and others are slow-moving or sessile marine animals.
-a thin epidermis covers an endoskeleton of hard calcareous plates.
-reproduce sexually, and is external
-have a radial anatomy evolved from bilateral symmetry of ancestors.
Echinodermata have a ________ vascular system, a network of hydraulic canals branching into tube feet that function in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange.
__________, subphylum cephalochordate, are named for their blade-like shape. They are marine suspension feeders that retain characteristics of the chordate body plan as adults.
is a vertebrate, also known as an urochordate.
The least derived surviving craniate lineage is Myxini, the __________.
_________ become more efficient at capturing food and avoiding being eaten. They have the following derived characters:
-vertebrae forming backbone
-an elaborate skull
-dorsal, pelvic, and anal fins/appendages
___________ represent the oldest living lineage of vertebrates. They are jawless vertebrates that feed by clamping their mouth onto a live fish.
Lampreys have __________ _______ (vertebrae like projections) surrounding the notochord.
_________ are vertebrates that have jaws.
-have a skeleton composed primarily of cartilage
-the largest and most diverse group of this include sharks, rays, and skates.
-The reproductive tract, excretory system, and digestive tract empty into a common cloaca.
__________ (bony fish) have a bony endoskeleton.
Aquatic __________ are the vertebrates we informally call fishes.
The __________ have muscular pelvic and pectoral fins. 3 lineages survive and include coelacanths, lungfishes, and tetrapods.
_________ are gnathostones that have limbs.
____________ means "both ways of life", referring to the metamorphosis of an aquatic larva into a terrestrial adult.
Most amphibians have moist skin that complements the lungs in ______ _________.
Amphibian fertilization is _________ in most species, and the eggs require a moist environment.
Most amphibians are ________.
_________ are a group of tetrapods whose living members include reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Amniotes are named for the major derived character of the clade, the ________ ____, which contains extra embryonic membranes that protect the embryo.
The FOUR ___________ __________ are the amnion, chorion, yolk sac, and allantois.
The _______ clade includes the tuataras, lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodilians, and birds.
Derived Characters of ________:
-the major adaptation is wings with keratin feathers.
-other adaptations include lack of a urinary bladder, females with only one ovary, small gonads, loss of teeth, larger brains, and pneumatic bones.
___________ are amniotes that have hair and produce milk.
Mammary glands, hair, a larger brain than other vertebrates of equivalent size, l onger period of parental care of young differentiated teeth.
_________ are animals that lack a backbone, they account for 95% of known animals species.
Phylum ________ (sponges): are basal animals that lack true tissues.
-live in both fresh and marine waters.
-are attacked(sessile) organisms.
Sponges are ________ _______, capturing food particles suspended in the water that pass through their body.
____________, flagellated collar cells, generate a water current through the sponge and ingest suspended food.
In Porifera, water is drawn through pores into a cavity called the _________, and out through an opening called the osculum.
Sponges consist of a noncellular ________ layer between two cell layers.
__________ are found in the mesohyl and play roles in digestion and structure in sponges.
Most sponges are ___________: Each individual function as both male and female.
Phylum _______: are ancient phylum of eumetazoans. have diversified into a wide range of both sessile and motile (floating) forms including jellies, corals, and hydras.
-they exhibit a relatively simple diploblastic, radial body plan.
Cnidaria exhibit a relatively simple ________, radial body plan.
The basic body plan of a Cnidarian is a sac with a central digestive compartment, the _______ ______.
There are two variations on the Cnidarian body plan: the sessile _______ and motile _________.
Phylum _______ is divided into four major classes:
Most _______ alternate between polyp and medusa forms.
In the class ________, jellies (medusae) are the prevalent form of the life cycle.
In the class ________, which includes box jellies and sea wasps, the medusa is box shaped and has complex eyes.
Class ________ includes the corals and sea anemones, which occur only as polyps.
Members of phylum _________ ( flatworms) live in marine, freshwater, and damp terrestrial habitats. they are acoelomates. They are flattened dorsoventrally and have a gastrovascular cavity.
________ classes are:
___________ are a class of flatworm that are nearly all free-living and mostly marine animals. have a mouth on ventral surface, which can act as anus, a pharynx, and release digestive juices.
__________ and _________, a class of flatworm, live as parasites in or on other animals. They parasitize most vertebrates.
________ that parasitize humans spend part of their lives in snail hosts.
Most ________ are parasites of fish.
Class ________, a class of flatworm, are tapeworms, which lack a digestive system.
________, phylum Rotifera, are tiny animals that inhabit fresh water, the ocean, and damp soil. they are smaller than many protists but are truly multicellular and have specialized systems. are females ONLY.
_________ are soft-bodied animals, but most are protected by a hard shell, are coelomates, have excretory organs, an alimentary canal, and an open circulatory system.
The molluscs class, __________, consists of the chitons, oval-shaped marine animals encased in an armor of eight dorsal plates.
About three-quarters of all living species of molluscs are _________. most are marine, but many are freshwater and terrestrial species, have single, spiraled shell, head with eyes on tentacles.
Molluscs of class __________ include many species of clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops. have a hinged shell divided into two halves, NO head or radula, and mantle cavity contains gills used for feeding and gas exchange
Mollusc class __________ includes squids and octopuses, carnivores with beak-like jaws surrounded by tentacles of their modified foot, close circulatory system, shell is either external, internal, or absent, have brain and sensory organs, and well expressed eyes.
Major lineage of Arthropods, __________ ( sea spiders, horseshoe crabs, scorpions, ticks, mites, and spider), are named for clawlike feeding appendages called chelicerae.
Major lineage of Arthropod, _________ (centipedes and millipedes), are terrestrial and have jaw-like mandibles.
have one pair of legs per trunk segment:
have two pair of legs per trunk segment:
Major lineage of Arthropod, _________ (insects and relatives), have more species than all other forms of life combined. live in almost everyterrestriacl habitat and in freshwater, reproduce sexually.
In __________ metamorphosis, the young, called nymphs, resemble adults but are smaller and go through a series of molts until they reach full size.
Insects with _________ metamorphosis have larval stages known by such names as maggot, grub, or caterpillar.
Major lineage of Arthropod: ________( crabs, lobster, shrimps, barnacles, and many others), for the most part, have remained in marine and freshwater environments. typically have branched appendages that are extensively specialized for feeding and locomotion, reproduce sexually.
Four key characteristics of _________:
-dorsal, hollow nerve cord
-pharyngeal slits of clefts
-muscular, post-anal tail
________ are a small group of egg-laying MAMMALS consisting of echidnas and the platypus. They have cloaka and lack nipples.
_________ are mammals that include opossums, kangaroos, and koalas. a marsupial is born very early in it development and it completes ints embryonic development while nursing in a maternal pouch.
One group of Anthropoids, the ________, consists of primates informally called apes. This group includes: gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans.
The human and _________ genomes are 99% identical.
Derived Character of ___________:
-upright posture and bipedal locomotion
-larger brains that other hominoids
-les prominent brow and more slender body than other hominoids
-language capabilities and symbolic thought
-the manufacture and use of complex tools
-shorter digestive tract
-originated from Africa
3) Which of the following is (are) unique to animals?
A) cells that have mitochondria
B) the structural carbohydrate, chitin
C) nervous conduction and muscular movement
E) Two of these responses are correct.
11) Whatever its ultimate cause(s), the Cambrian explosion is a prime
A) mass extinction.
B) evolutionary stasis.
C) adaptive radiation.
D) All three of the responses are correct.
E) Only two of the responses are correct.
At which developmental stage should one be able to first distinguish
a diploblastic embryo from a triploblastic embryo?
D) coelom formation
19) At which developmental stage should one be able to first
distinguish a protostome embryo from a deuterostome embryo?
D) coelom formation
20) What distinguishes a coelomate animal from a pseudocoelomate
animal is that coelomates
A) have a body cavity, whereas pseudocoelomates have a solid body.
B) contain tissues derived from mesoderm, whereas pseudocoelomates have no such tissue.
C) have a body cavity completely lined by mesodermal tissue, whereas pseudocoelomates do not.
D) have a complete digestive system with mouth and anus, whereas pseudocoelomates have a digestive tract with only one opening.
E) have a gut that lacks suspension within the body cavity, whereas pseudocoelomates have mesenteries that hold the digestive system in place.
21) You have before you a living organism, which you examine
carefully. Which of the following should convince you that the
organism is acoelomate?
A) It is triploblastic.
B) It has bilateral symmetry.
C) It possesses sensory structures at its anterior end.
D) Muscular activity of its digestive system distorts the body wall.
The blastopore is a structure that first becomes evident during
C) the eight-cell stage of the embryo.
D) coelom formation.
Which of the following is descriptive of protostomes?
A) spiral and indeterminate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth
B) spiral and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth
C) spiral and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes anus
D) radial and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes anus
E) radial and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth
Which of the following characteristics generally applies to
A) radial cleavage
B) determinate cleavage
C) diploblastic embryo
D) blastopore becomes the anus
E) archenteron absent
Protostome characteristics generally include which of the following?
A) a mouth that develops secondarily, and far away from the blastopore
B) radial body symmetry
C) radial cleavage
D) determinate cleavage
E) absence of a body cavity
Among the characteristics unique to animals is
C) sexual reproduction.
D) flagellated sperm.
E) heterotrophic nutrition.
The distinction between sponges and other animal phyla is based
mainly on the absence versus the presence of
A) a body cavity.
B) a complete digestive tract.
C) a circulatory system.
D) true tissues.
Acoelomates are characterized by
A) the absence of a brain.
B) the absence of mesoderm.
C) deuterostome development.
D) a coelom that is not completely lined with mesoderm.
E) a solid body without a cavity surrounding internal organs.
The members of which clade in the phylum Cnidaria occur only as
Which clade in the phylum Cnidaria includes "jellies" with
rounded (as opposed to boxlike) medusae?