Review Exercise C

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created 6 years ago by Erin_Cook_Phillips
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Positioning the Fingers, Thumb, Hand, and Wrist
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1

What is the kV range most commonly used for upper limb radiography?

50-70 analog

55-80 digital

2

What type of exposure time is more commonly used with upper limb radiography?

short

3

What type of focal spot is most commonly used with upper limb radiography?

small

4

What is the most common minimum SID for upper limb radiography?

40 inches

5

grids are used if the body part measures greater than

10 cm

6

type of intensification screens most commonly used for analog imaging in upper limb radiography

detail-intensifying

7

how would you change the technical factors for upper limb radiography if the patient had a small to medium dry plaster cast

increase 5-7 kV

8

how would you change the technical factors for upper limb radiography if the patient had a large plaster cast

increase 8-10 kV

9

how would you change the technical factors for upper limb radiography if the patient had a fiberglass cast

increase 3-4 kV

10

correctly exposed radiographs visualize __________ margins and __________ markings of all bones

soft tissue

fine trabecular

11

The general rule for collimation for upper limb radiography states

collimation borders should be visible on all four sides if the IR is large enough to allow for this with out cutting off essential anatomy

12

what factors help reduce image distortion during upper limb radiography

40-44 inch SID

Minimal OID

Correct CR placement and angulation

Use of small focal spot

13

True/False:

Lead (protective) shielding is only required for upper limb studies performed on patients who are child-bearing age or younger

False

A good practice is to provide shielding for all patients

14

True/False:

Guardians of young pediatric patients who are having upper limb studies can be asked to hold their child during the radiographic study

True

Given proper shielding

15

What is a radiographic procedure that uses contrast media injected into the joint capsule to visualize soft tissue pathology of the wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints?

Arthrography

16

What is the routine positioning routine for the second through fifth digits of the hand?

PA, PA oblique, and lateral

17

How much of the metacarpals should be included for a PA projection of the digits?

distal aspect of metacarpals

18

list the two radiographic criteria used to determine whether rotation is present on the PA projection of the digits

symmetric appearance of both sides of the shafts of phalanges and distal metacarpals

equal amounts of tissue on each side of the phalanges

19

Which positioning modifications should be used for a study of the second digit to reduce distortion for a PA oblique projection

perform the medial oblique rather than lateral oblique

20

which positioning modifications should be used for a study of the second digit to reduce distortion for a lateral position

perform a thumb-down lateral (mediolateral projection) to decrease OID

21

where is the CR centered fro a PA oblique projection of the second digit

proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint

22

Why is it important to keep the affected digit parallel to the IR for the PA oblique and lateral projections

to prevent distortion of the phalanx

to prevent distortion of the joints

to demonstrate small, non-displaced fractures near the joint

23

Why is the AP projection of the thumb recommended instead of PA

The AP position produces a decrease in OID and increased resolution

24

Which projection of the thumb is achieved naturally by placing the palmar surface of the hand in contact with the cassette?

PA oblique

25

Which IR size should be used for a thumb projection?

18x24 cm (8x10 inch)

26

A sesamoid bone is frequently found adjacent to the _________ joint of the thumb.

metacarpophalangeal (MCP)

27

True/False:

The entire metacarpal and trapezium must be demonstrated on all projections of the thumb

True

28

Where is the CR centered for an AP projection of the thumb?

First metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint

29

A Bennett's fracture involves:

Base of first metacarpal

30

Which special positioning method can be performed to demonstrate a Bennett's fracture?

Modified Robert's method

31

Where is the CR centered for a PA projection of the hand?

third metacarpophalangeal MCP joint

32

a minimum of _____ inch(es) ______ cm of the forearm should be included radiographically for PA projection of the hand

1 inch, 2.5 cm

33

True/False:

Slight superimposition of the distal third, fourth, and fifth metacarpals may occur with a well-positioned PA projection of the hand.

True

34

Which preferred lateral position of the hand best demonstrates the phalanges without excessive superimposition?

Fan lateral

35

Which lateral projection of the hand best demonstrates a possible foreign body in the palm of the hand?

Lateral in extension

36

What is the proper name for the position referred to as the "ball-catcher's position"?

Norgaard method

37

The "ball-catchers position" is commonly used to evaluate for early signs of

rheumatoid arthritis

38

The elbow generally should be flexed ________ degrees for the routine positions of the wrist.

90 degrees

39

How much rotation is required for an oblique projection of the wrist?

45 degrees

40

Which alternative projection to the routine PA wrist best demonstrates the intercarpal joint spaces and wrist joint?

AP projection with the hand slightly arched

41

Which positioning error is involved if a majority of the carpal bones are superimposed in a PA oblique wrist projection?

excessive lateral rotation from PA

42

Which one of the following fractures is not demonstrated in a wrist routine?

Barton's

Pott's

Smith's

Colles'

Pott's

43

During the PA axial scaphoid projection with CR angle and ulnar flexion, the CR must be angled

10-15 degrees proximally

44

How much are the hand and wrist elevated from the IR for the modified Stecher method?

20 degrees

45

How much CR angulation to the long axis of the hand is required for the carpal canal (tunnel) projection?

25-30 degrees

46

Which special projection of the wrist best demonstrates the interspaces on the ulnar side of the wrist between the lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, and hamate bones?

PA projection with radial deviation

47

Which special projection of the wrist helps rule out abnormal calcifications in the carpal sulcus ?

Tangential inferiosuperior or Gaynor-Hart projection

48

How much CR angulation from the long axis of the forearm is required for the carpal bridge (tangential) projection?

45 degrees

49

The hand and wrist form a ________ angle to the forearm with the carpal bridge (tangential) projection.

90 degree