Review Exercise C
What is the kV range most commonly used for upper limb radiography?
What type of exposure time is more commonly used with upper limb radiography?
What type of focal spot is most commonly used with upper limb radiography?
What is the most common minimum SID for upper limb radiography?
grids are used if the body part measures greater than
type of intensification screens most commonly used for analog imaging in upper limb radiography
how would you change the technical factors for upper limb radiography if the patient had a small to medium dry plaster cast
increase 5-7 kV
how would you change the technical factors for upper limb radiography if the patient had a large plaster cast
increase 8-10 kV
how would you change the technical factors for upper limb radiography if the patient had a fiberglass cast
increase 3-4 kV
correctly exposed radiographs visualize __________ margins and __________ markings of all bones
The general rule for collimation for upper limb radiography states
collimation borders should be visible on all four sides if the IR is large enough to allow for this with out cutting off essential anatomy
what factors help reduce image distortion during upper limb radiography
40-44 inch SID
Correct CR placement and angulation
Use of small focal spot
Lead (protective) shielding is only required for upper limb studies performed on patients who are child-bearing age or younger
A good practice is to provide shielding for all patients
Guardians of young pediatric patients who are having upper limb studies can be asked to hold their child during the radiographic study
Given proper shielding
What is a radiographic procedure that uses contrast media injected into the joint capsule to visualize soft tissue pathology of the wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints?
What is the routine positioning routine for the second through fifth digits of the hand?
PA, PA oblique, and lateral
How much of the metacarpals should be included for a PA projection of the digits?
distal aspect of metacarpals
list the two radiographic criteria used to determine whether rotation is present on the PA projection of the digits
symmetric appearance of both sides of the shafts of phalanges and distal metacarpals
equal amounts of tissue on each side of the phalanges
Which positioning modifications should be used for a study of the second digit to reduce distortion for a PA oblique projection
perform the medial oblique rather than lateral oblique
which positioning modifications should be used for a study of the second digit to reduce distortion for a lateral position
perform a thumb-down lateral (mediolateral projection) to decrease OID
where is the CR centered fro a PA oblique projection of the second digit
proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint
Why is it important to keep the affected digit parallel to the IR for the PA oblique and lateral projections
to prevent distortion of the phalanx
to prevent distortion of the joints
to demonstrate small, non-displaced fractures near the joint
Why is the AP projection of the thumb recommended instead of PA
The AP position produces a decrease in OID and increased resolution
Which projection of the thumb is achieved naturally by placing the palmar surface of the hand in contact with the cassette?
Which IR size should be used for a thumb projection?
18x24 cm (8x10 inch)
A sesamoid bone is frequently found adjacent to the _________ joint of the thumb.
The entire metacarpal and trapezium must be demonstrated on all projections of the thumb
Where is the CR centered for an AP projection of the thumb?
First metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint
A Bennett's fracture involves:
Base of first metacarpal
Which special positioning method can be performed to demonstrate a Bennett's fracture?
Modified Robert's method
Where is the CR centered for a PA projection of the hand?
third metacarpophalangeal MCP joint
a minimum of _____ inch(es) ______ cm of the forearm should be included radiographically for PA projection of the hand
1 inch, 2.5 cm
Slight superimposition of the distal third, fourth, and fifth metacarpals may occur with a well-positioned PA projection of the hand.
Which preferred lateral position of the hand best demonstrates the phalanges without excessive superimposition?
Which lateral projection of the hand best demonstrates a possible foreign body in the palm of the hand?
Lateral in extension
What is the proper name for the position referred to as the "ball-catcher's position"?
The "ball-catchers position" is commonly used to evaluate for early signs of
The elbow generally should be flexed ________ degrees for the routine positions of the wrist.
How much rotation is required for an oblique projection of the wrist?
Which alternative projection to the routine PA wrist best demonstrates the intercarpal joint spaces and wrist joint?
AP projection with the hand slightly arched
Which positioning error is involved if a majority of the carpal bones are superimposed in a PA oblique wrist projection?
excessive lateral rotation from PA
Which one of the following fractures is not demonstrated in a wrist routine?
During the PA axial scaphoid projection with CR angle and ulnar flexion, the CR must be angled
10-15 degrees proximally
How much are the hand and wrist elevated from the IR for the modified Stecher method?
How much CR angulation to the long axis of the hand is required for the carpal canal (tunnel) projection?
Which special projection of the wrist best demonstrates the interspaces on the ulnar side of the wrist between the lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, and hamate bones?
PA projection with radial deviation
Which special projection of the wrist helps rule out abnormal calcifications in the carpal sulcus ?
Tangential inferiosuperior or Gaynor-Hart projection
How much CR angulation from the long axis of the forearm is required for the carpal bridge (tangential) projection?
The hand and wrist form a ________ angle to the forearm with the carpal bridge (tangential) projection.