Chapter 5 Homeostasis

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 4 years ago by asianna40
116 views
updated 4 years ago by asianna40
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Stressors

Changes with the potential to disturb equilibrium
(Factors that cause stress)

2

Homeostasis

relatively stable state of physiologic equilibrium.
body adjust and readjust in responses to changes in internal and external environment.
"staying the same"

3

Holism

Physical, emotional, spiritual components that contribute to the whole of a person.

4

Stress from Holism

Physiologic
Psychological
Social
Spiritual

5

Holism 2 Common Held Beliefs

1. Mind and body influence humans
2. Relationships (mind)(body)-sustain health
(mind)--->Adapts----->Responds--->Adaptation

6

Adaptation

Response of an organism to change using self protective properties and mechanisms for regulating homeostasis
(Neurotransmitters

7

Neurotransmitters

Chemical Messengers synthesized in the neurons to allow communication across the synaptic cleft between neurons

Effect: thinking behavior, bodily functions

8

When Neurotransmitters are Released what do they bind to?

Receptor sites on postsynaptic neuron and transmit their information

9

Common Neurotransmitters

Serotonin
Dopamine
Norepinephrine
Acetylcholine
Gamma- amino butyric acid
glutamate

10

Serotonin (NT)

stabilize mood, induces sleep, and regulates temp

11

Norepinephrine (NT)

Heightens arousal and increase energy
(Catecholamine's)

12

Acetylcholine

Promote coordinated movement

13

Gamma-amino butyric acid

Inhibits the excitatory

14

Dopamine

Promote coordinated movement
(Catecholamine's)

15

Substance P

Transmit the pain sensation

16

Endorphins/ enkephalins

interrupt the transmission of substance P and promote a sense of well being

17

Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis

highly integrated communication system.

18

Central Nervous System

Brain (Cortex/Subcortex)
Spinal Cord

19

Cortex

Higher functioning portion of the brain.
-Enables people to think abstractly
-Language
-Store memories
-Make decisions on information received.
(Activation by Hypothalamus)

20

Subcortex

Structures of the midbrain and brainstem
-Regulates breathing
-heart contraction
-blood pressure
-body temp
-sleep
-appetite
-Stimulation and inhibition of hormone production

21

Reticular Activating System (RAS)

Area of the brain through which a network of nerves pass, it is the communication link between the body and mind.

22

Autonomic Nervous System

Peripheral nerves affecting physiologic functions that are largely automatic and beyond voluntary control.
- sympathetic
- parasympathetic

23

Sympathetic

situation occurs that the mind perceives as dangerous
"Fight or flight Response"
-active
-aroused
-emotionally charged

24

Parasympathetic

restores equilibrium after danger is no longer apparent

25

Pituitary gland "MASTER GLAND"

located in the brain considered, connected to the hypothalamus.

26

Hypothalamus

subcortical structure through both vascular connections and nerve endings

27

Feedback loop

controlling hormone production
-negative
-positive

28

Negative feedback loop

when a hormone level decreases the releasing gland is stimulated.

29

Positive feedback loop

when the hormone level increases the releasing gland is stimulated.
Keep concentrations of hormones in a stable range at all times.

30

Stress

physiologic and behavioral responses to disequilibrium
(physical, emotional, cognitive effects)

31

Human responses to stress

1. intensity of the stressor
2. number of stressors
3.duration of the stressor
4. physical health status
5.life experiences
6.coping strategies
7.social support
8.personal beliefs
9. attitudes
10.values

32

Catastrophize

choosing to focus on all the potentially negative outcomes that may result from stressors.

33

General adaptation syndrome

a process developed by Hans Seyle in 1900 collective physiologic processes of the stress response. 1. body physical response is always the same 2. follow a stage pattern 1. Alarm 2. Stage of resistance 3. exhaustion

34

Alarm Stage (1st stage)

Immediate physiologic response to a stressor
"Fight or Flight"

35

Stage of Resistance (2nd stage)

physiologic changes designed to restore homeostasis.
"back to normal"

36

Stage of Exhaustion (3rd stage)

adaptation syndrome, when one or more adaptive or resistive mechanisms are no longer able to protect the person experiencing a stressor.

37

Coping Mechanisms of stress

unconscious tactics to defend the phyche.

OVERUSED/OVEREXTENDED: maladaptive effects, distorting reality to such an extent that the person fails to recognize and correct his or her weakness.

38

Coping Strategies

stress reduction activities selected consciously

39

Therapeutic- acquire insight, gain confidence to comfort reality and emotional maturity.

Nontherapeutic- mind and mood-altering substances, hostility and aggression, excessive sleep avoidance of conflict and abandonment of social activities.

40

Ex: Seeking professional assistance in a crisis, using problem solving techniques, demonstrating assertive behavior, practicing progressive relaxation.

...

41

Stress related Disorders

Diseases that result from prolonged stimulation of the autonomic nervous and endocrine systems.

42

Nursing Implications Dealing With Stress

-Identify he stressors
-Asses the client response to stress
-Eliminate or reduce the stressors
-prevent additional stressors
-Promote the client physiologic adaptive responses
-support the client psychological coping strategies
-assist in maintaining a network of social support
-Implement stress reduction and stress management techniques.

43

Assessment of Stressors

Social Readjustment Rating Scale- tool used to predict a person potential for developing stress related disorder.

44

Prevention of Stressors

Primary, secondary, tertiary

45

Primary Prevention

eliminating the potential for illness before it occurs

Ex: teaching principles of nutrition and methods to maintain normal weight and blood pressure to adolescents.

46

Secondary Prevention

screening for risk factors and providing a means for early diagnosis of disease.

Ex: regularly measuring blood pressure of a client with a family history o f hypertension.

47

Tertiary Prevention

Minimizes the consequences of a disorder through aggressive rehabilitation or appropriate management of the disease

Ex: frequent turning, positioning and exercising a client who has had a stroke to restore functional ability

48

Stress-Reduction Techniques

methods that promote physiologic comfort and emotional well being.
1. providing adequate explanations
2.remaining calm during crisis
3.avaliable to client.

49

Stress-Management Techniques

therapeutic activities used to reestablish balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.

50

Endorphins

natural body chemicals that produce effects similar to those of opiate drugs such as morphine

Produced in the Pituitary gland, present in blood and other tissues.

51

Sensory Manipulation

altering moods, feelings, physiologic responses by stimulating pleasure centers in the brain using sensory stimuli

Ex: listening to music, aromas, baking cookies or bread

52

Adaptive Activities

Alternative thinking, Alternative behaviors, Alternative lifestyle

53

Alternative thinking

facilitate a change in a person perceptions from negative to positive

54

Reframing

helps a person to analyze a stressful situation from various perspectives and to ultimately conclude that situation is not bad as it seemed.

55

Alternative Behaviors

modify stress by taking control rather being immobilized. promote self confidence

56

Alternative Lifestyle

Improve diet, physically active, cultivate humor and take scheduled breaks throughout the day for leisure, powernaps, or listening to uplifting music.

57

Interventions for Stress Management

-Modeling
-Progressive relaxation
- Imagery
-Biofeedback
-Yoga
-meditation and prayer
-placebo effect

58

Modeling

Promote the ability to learn and adaptive response by exposing a person to someone who demonstrates a positive attitude or behavior.

59

Progressive relaxation

Eases tense muscles by clearing the mind of stressful thoughts and focusing on consciously relaxing specific muscle groups.

60

Imagery Biofeedback

Uses the mind to visualize calming, pleasurable and positive experiences.

61

Yoga

Reduces physical and emotional tension through postural changes, muscular stretching and focused concentration.

62

Meditation and Prayer

Reduces physiologic activation by placing ones trust in a higher power.

63

Placebo effect

Alters negative physiologic response through the power of suggestion.

64

CRF Corticotrophin-releasing factor

triggers the pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotrophic hormone.

65

ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone

release of cortisol a stress hormone from he adrenal cortex

Cortisol- Stressor, raising blood glucose

66

Biofeedback

Alters autonomic nervous system functions by responding to electronically displayed physiologic data