Chapter 5 Homeostasis
Changes with the potential to disturb equilibrium
(Factors that cause stress)
relatively stable state of physiologic equilibrium.
body adjust and readjust in responses to changes in internal and external environment.
"staying the same"
Physical, emotional, spiritual components that contribute to the whole of a person.
Stress from Holism
Holism 2 Common Held Beliefs
1. Mind and body influence humans
2. Relationships (mind)(body)-sustain health
Response of an organism to change using self protective properties
and mechanisms for regulating homeostasis
Chemical Messengers synthesized in the neurons to allow communication
across the synaptic cleft between neurons
Effect: thinking behavior, bodily functions
When Neurotransmitters are Released what do they bind to?
Receptor sites on postsynaptic neuron and transmit their information
Gamma- amino butyric acid
stabilize mood, induces sleep, and regulates temp
Heightens arousal and increase energy
Promote coordinated movement
Gamma-amino butyric acid
Inhibits the excitatory
Promote coordinated movement
Transmit the pain sensation
interrupt the transmission of substance P and promote a sense of well being
Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis
highly integrated communication system.
Central Nervous System
Higher functioning portion of the brain.
-Enables people to think abstractly
-Make decisions on information received.
(Activation by Hypothalamus)
Structures of the midbrain and brainstem
-Stimulation and inhibition of hormone production
Reticular Activating System (RAS)
Area of the brain through which a network of nerves pass, it is the communication link between the body and mind.
Autonomic Nervous System
Peripheral nerves affecting physiologic functions that are largely
automatic and beyond voluntary control.
situation occurs that the mind perceives as dangerous
"Fight or flight Response"
restores equilibrium after danger is no longer apparent
Pituitary gland "MASTER GLAND"
located in the brain considered, connected to the hypothalamus.
subcortical structure through both vascular connections and nerve endings
controlling hormone production
Negative feedback loop
when a hormone level decreases the releasing gland is stimulated.
Positive feedback loop
when the hormone level increases the releasing gland is stimulated.
Keep concentrations of hormones in a stable range at all times.
physiologic and behavioral responses to disequilibrium
(physical, emotional, cognitive effects)
Human responses to stress
1. intensity of the stressor
2. number of stressors
3.duration of the stressor
4. physical health status
choosing to focus on all the potentially negative outcomes that may result from stressors.
General adaptation syndrome
a process developed by Hans Seyle in 1900 collective physiologic processes of the stress response. 1. body physical response is always the same 2. follow a stage pattern 1. Alarm 2. Stage of resistance 3. exhaustion
Alarm Stage (1st stage)
Immediate physiologic response to a stressor
"Fight or Flight"
Stage of Resistance (2nd stage)
physiologic changes designed to restore homeostasis.
"back to normal"
Stage of Exhaustion (3rd stage)
adaptation syndrome, when one or more adaptive or resistive mechanisms are no longer able to protect the person experiencing a stressor.
Coping Mechanisms of stress
unconscious tactics to defend the phyche.
OVERUSED/OVEREXTENDED: maladaptive effects, distorting reality to such an extent that the person fails to recognize and correct his or her weakness.
stress reduction activities selected consciously
Therapeutic- acquire insight, gain confidence to comfort reality and emotional maturity.
Nontherapeutic- mind and mood-altering substances, hostility and aggression, excessive sleep avoidance of conflict and abandonment of social activities.
Ex: Seeking professional assistance in a crisis, using problem solving techniques, demonstrating assertive behavior, practicing progressive relaxation.
Stress related Disorders
Diseases that result from prolonged stimulation of the autonomic nervous and endocrine systems.
Nursing Implications Dealing With Stress
-Identify he stressors
-Asses the client response to stress
-Eliminate or reduce the stressors
-prevent additional stressors
-Promote the client physiologic adaptive responses
-support the client psychological coping strategies
-assist in maintaining a network of social support
-Implement stress reduction and stress management techniques.
Assessment of Stressors
Social Readjustment Rating Scale- tool used to predict a person potential for developing stress related disorder.
Prevention of Stressors
Primary, secondary, tertiary
eliminating the potential for illness before it occurs
Ex: teaching principles of nutrition and methods to maintain normal weight and blood pressure to adolescents.
screening for risk factors and providing a means for early diagnosis
Ex: regularly measuring blood pressure of a client with a family history o f hypertension.
Minimizes the consequences of a disorder through aggressive
rehabilitation or appropriate management of the disease
Ex: frequent turning, positioning and exercising a client who has had a stroke to restore functional ability
methods that promote physiologic comfort and emotional well
1. providing adequate explanations
2.remaining calm during crisis
3.avaliable to client.
therapeutic activities used to reestablish balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
natural body chemicals that produce effects similar to those of
opiate drugs such as morphine
Produced in the Pituitary gland, present in blood and other tissues.
altering moods, feelings, physiologic responses by stimulating
pleasure centers in the brain using sensory stimuli
Ex: listening to music, aromas, baking cookies or bread
Alternative thinking, Alternative behaviors, Alternative lifestyle
facilitate a change in a person perceptions from negative to positive
helps a person to analyze a stressful situation from various perspectives and to ultimately conclude that situation is not bad as it seemed.
modify stress by taking control rather being immobilized. promote self confidence
Improve diet, physically active, cultivate humor and take scheduled breaks throughout the day for leisure, powernaps, or listening to uplifting music.
Interventions for Stress Management
-meditation and prayer
Promote the ability to learn and adaptive response by exposing a person to someone who demonstrates a positive attitude or behavior.
Eases tense muscles by clearing the mind of stressful thoughts and focusing on consciously relaxing specific muscle groups.
Uses the mind to visualize calming, pleasurable and positive experiences.
Reduces physical and emotional tension through postural changes, muscular stretching and focused concentration.
Meditation and Prayer
Reduces physiologic activation by placing ones trust in a higher power.
Alters negative physiologic response through the power of suggestion.
CRF Corticotrophin-releasing factor
triggers the pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotrophic hormone.
ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone
release of cortisol a stress hormone from he adrenal cortex
Cortisol- Stressor, raising blood glucose
Alters autonomic nervous system functions by responding to electronically displayed physiologic data