Exam 1 Review

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Campbell Biology
Chapters 25-28
Dr. Nesterovitch 7/16
updated 4 years ago by mrgn_reed95
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1

(Conditions of early earth)

Earth’s early atmosphere likely contained _____ ______ and ________ released by volcanic eruptions (nitrogen, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide

water vapor and chemicals

2

Stanley Miller and Harold Urey experiment results:

experiment showed that the abiotic synthesis of organic molecules in a reducing atmosphere is possible.

3

(4 hypothetical steps leading to the origin of life)

1. Abiotic synthesis of small ________ ________.

organ molecules

4

(4 hypothetical steps leading to the origin of life)

2. joining of these small molecules into _____________.

macromolecules

5

(4 hypothetical steps leading to the origin of life)

3. Packaging of molecules into ________.

protocells

6

(4 hypothetical steps leading to the origin of life)

4. origin of ______-______ _______.

self-replicating molecules

7

________ may have been fluid filled vesicles with a membrane-like structure.

would have been vesicles with RNA capable of replication.

Protocells

8

________ endosymbiosis occurs when the product of primary endosymbiosis is itself engulfed and retained by another free living eukaryote.

this went on between red and green algae during eukaryotic evolution.

secondary endosymbiosis

9

________ endosymbiosis involves the engulfment of a bacterium by another free living organism.

primary endosymbiosis

10

a method for determining the absolute age of rocks and fossils, based on the half-life of radioactive isotopes.

radiometric dating

11

__________ is the ordered division and naming of organisms.

Taxonomy

12

an approach to systematics in which organisms are placed into groups called clades based primarily on common descent.

cladistic

13

the discipline of __________ classifies organisms and determines their evolutionary relationships.

systematic

14

________ is the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species.

phylogeny

15

__________ __________ is a system of taxonomy based on resemblances published by Carolus Linnaeus.

Two key features of his system: two-part names for species and hierarchical classification.

binomial nomenclature

16

the two-part name of a species is called a _______.

binomial

17

the first part of the binomial name is the _______.

genus

18

the second part of the binomial name, called the _______ _______, is unique for each species within the genus.

second epithet

19

Rules for organism naming:

The first letter of the genus is _________.

capitalized

20

Rules for organism naming:

the entire species name is ________.

italicized

21

Systematists depict evolutionary relationships in branching __________ ______. it represents a hypotheses about evolutionary relationships.

phylogenetic trees

22

Each ______ _____ in a phylogenetic tree, represent the divergence of two species.

branch point

23

_________ is a branching diagram showing the cladistic relationship between a number of species.

cladograms

24

_________ is a branching diagram that is assumed to be an estimate of a phylogeny. The branch lengths are proportional to the amount of inferred evolutionary change.

phylograms

25

a taxonomic unit at any level of hierarchy is called a _______.

taxon

26

Hierarchical Classification:

#1?

Domain

27

Hierarchical Classification

#2?

Kingdom

28

Hierarchical Classification

#3?

Phylum

29

Hierarchical Classification

#4?

Class

30

Hierarchical Classification

#5?

Order

31

Hierarchical Classification

#6?

Family

32

Hierarchical Classification

#7?

Genus

33

Hierarchical Classification

#8?

Species

34
card image

__________ homologies are structures derived from a common ancestral structure (that may or may not be used for the same function in the species in which it occurs).

Morphological homologies

35

_________ is similarity due to shared ancestry.

Homology

36

_______ is similarity due to convergent evolution.

Analogy

37

_________ structures or molecular sequences that evolved independently are also called homoplasies.

Analogous

38

_________ ________ uses DNA and other molecular data to determine evolutionary relationships.

Molecular systematics

39

an _______ is a species or group of species that is closely to the ingroup.

outgroup

40

the _______ are the various species that are being studied that an outgroup would be closely related to.

ingroup

41

________ _____ are groups that share an immediate common ancestor.

Sister taxa

42

__________ group consists of the ancestor species and all its descendants.

Monophyletic group

43

________ group consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all, of the descendants.

Paraphyletic group

44

_________ group consists of various species that lack a common ancestor.

Polyphyletic group

45

a shared ________ feature is an evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade.

shared derived features

46

a shared ________ feature is a characteristic that originated in an ancestor of the taxon.

shared ancestral features

47

_______ ________ is a method for estimating the time required for a given amount of evolutionary change, based on the observation that some regions of genomes evolve at constant rates.

molecular clocks

48

_______ _______ is the division of Earth's history into time periods, grouped into three eons: Archaean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic. and further subdivided into ears, periods, and epochs.

Geological record

49

The elimination of a large number of species throughout Earth, the result of global environmental changes.

Mass extinctions

50

Gram _______ cell wall: describing the group of bacteria that have a cell wall that is structurally more complex and contains less peptidoglycan.

Gram negative cell wall

51

Gram ________ cell wall: Describing the group of bacteria that have a cell wall that is structurally less complex and contains more peptidoglycan.

Gram positive cell wall

52

The three most common Prokaryotic shapes are: _______ (cocci), _____(bacilli), and _____.

spheres , rods , spirals.

53

__________ thrive almost everywhere, including places too acidic, salty, cold, or hot for most other organisms.

Prokaryotes

54

Prokaryotes are divided into two domains: ________ and ________.

Bacteria, Archaea

55

An important feature of all Prokaryotic cells is their ___ ____, which maintains cell shape, provides physical protection, and prevents the cell from bursting in a hypotonic environment.

cell wall

56

The bacterial cell walls of Prokaryotes contain _________, a network of sugar polymers cross-liked by polypeptides.

peptidoglycan

57

(Diverse nutritional and metabolic adaptations of Prokaryotes)

________ obtain energy from light

Phototrophs

58

(Diverse nutritional and metabolic adaptations of Prokaryotes)

________ obtain energy from chemicals

Chemotrophs

59

(Diverse nutritional and metabolic adaptations of Prokaryotes)

________ require CO2 as a carbon source

Autotrophs

60

(Diverse nutritional and metabolic adaptations of Prokaryotes)

________ require an organic nutrient to make organic compounds.

Heterotrophs

61

(Prokaryotic metabolism varies with respect to O2)

Obligate ______ require O2 for cellular respiration.

Obligate aerobes

62

(Prokaryotic metabolism varies with respect to O2)

Obligate ________ are poisoned by O2 and use fermentation or anaerobic respiration.

Obligate anaerobes

63

(Prokaryotic metabolism varies with respect to O2)

________ anaerobes can survive with or without O2.

Facultative anaerobes

64

(Prokaryotic Nitrogen Metabolism)

In ________ _______, some prokaryotes convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3).

Nitrogen fixation

65

(Prokaryotic Nitrogen Metabolism)

In some prokaryotic species, metabolic cooperation occurs in surface-coating colonies called _______.

Biofilms

66

Prokaryotes reproduce quickly by _____ ______ and can divide every 1-3 hours.

Binary fission

67

Many Prokaryotes form metabolically inactive ________, which can remain viable in harsh conditions for centuries.

Endospores

68

Most of the Prokaryotic genome consists of a _________ chromosome.

Circular chromosome

69

Some Prokaryotic species of bacteria also have smaller rings of DNA called _______.

Plasmids

70

The typical Prokaryotic genome is a ring of DNA that is not surrounded by a membrane and that is located in a ________ region.

Nucleoid region

71

_________ cause disease even if the Prokaryotes that produce them are not present. They are proteins secreted by bacterial cells.

Exotoxins

72

__________ are released only when bacteria die and their cell walls break down.

Endotoxins

73

Prokaryotes are the principal agents in ________, the use of organisms to remove pollutants from the environment.

Bioremediation

74

In _________, both symbiotic organisms benefit.

mutualism

75

In ____________, one organism benefits while neither harming nor helping the other in any significant way.

commensalism

76

In __________, an organism called a parasite harms but does not kill its host.

parasitism

77

Parasites that cause disease are called ________.

pathogens

78

Prokaryotes play a major role in the ________ of chemical elements between the living and nonliving components of ecosystems.

recycling

79

Chemohetertrophic Prokaryotes function as _________, breaking down corpses, dead vegetation, and waste products.

decomposers

80

Prokaryotes can sometimes _________ the availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium for plant growth.

increase

81

Prokaryotes can also "immobilize" or ________ the availability of nutrients.

decrease

82

In bacteria, a structure that links one cell to another at the start of conjugation.

Pili (pilus)

83

a short, hairlike appendage of a prokaryotic cell that helps it adhere to the substrate or to other cells.

Fimbriae

84

Protists exhibit more structural and functional _______ than any other group of eukaryotes.

functional diversity

85

________, the most nutritionally diverse of all eukaryotes, include:

Photoautotrophs

heterotrophs

mixotrophs

Protists

86

__________ protists contain chloroplasts.

Photoautotrophs

87

__________ protists, absorb organic molecules or ingest larger food particles.

Heterotrophs

88

__________ protists combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition.

Mixotrophs

89

_________ include protists with modified mitochondria and protists with unique flagella.

Excavata

90

_________ derive energy anaerobically, have two equal-sized nuclei and multiple flagella, and are often parasites, for example, Giardia intestinalis- parasite of mammal intestinal tract.

Diplomonads

91

_________ have flagella and undulating plasma membrane, include Trichomonas vaginalis, the pathogen that causes yeast infections.

Parabasalids

92

_________ is a diverse clade that includes predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs, and pathogenic parasites.

Also includes: kinetoplastids and euglenids.

Euglenozoa

93

__________ have a single mitochondrion with an organized mass of DNA called a kinetoplast. They include free-living consumers of bacteria in freshwater, marine, and joint terrestrial ecosystems.

Kinetoplastids

94

_________ have one or two flagella that emerge from a pocket at one end of the cell.

Euglenids

95

Some data suggest that the clade __________ is monophyletic and originated by a secondary endosymbiosis event. The proposed endosymbiont is a red alga. includes: alveolates and stramenopiles.

Chromalveolata

96

Members of the clade _________ have membrane-bounded sacs ( alveoli) just under the plasma membrane

includes: dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates.

Alveolata

97

The clade _________ includes several groups of heterotrophs as well as certain groups of algae (autotrophs).

include: diatoms, golden algae, brown algae, and oomycetes

Stramenopiles

98

The most complex life cycles include an _________ of _________, the alternation of multicellular haploid and diploid forms. In how the life cycles of all land plants alternate between two generation of multicellular organisms: gametophytes and sporophytes.

Alternation of generations

99

_________ include most amoeboid and flagellated protists with threadlike pseudopodia but without a test.

Cercozoans

100

The supergroup ________ includes animals, fungi, and some protists. This group includes two clades: the amoebozoans and the opisthokonts.

Unikonta

101

________ are amoeba that have lobe- or tube-shaped, rather than threadlike, pseudopodia

Amoebozoans

102

a cellular extension of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding.

Pseudopodia

103

a type of endocytosis in which large particulate substances or small organisms are taken up by a cell.

Phagocytosis

104

a long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion.

Flagella

105

a short appendage containing microtubules in eukaryotic cells. specialized in locomotion or moving fluid past the cell.

cilia

106

_________ structure share similar function.

Analogous

107

_________ structure share common ancestry.

Homologous

108

________ evolution: the evolution of similar features in independent evolutionary lineages.

Convergent evolution

109

About 250 million years ago, these movements united all of earths landmass into a single large continent called ________.

Pangaea

110

During __________, Pangaea was split up into Laurasia and Gondwana.

Mesozoic

111

Presently during ________, the continental tectonic plate are located where they are today.

Cenozoic

112

Pangaea existed during ________.

Paleozoic

113

Some fungi produce antibiotics that are effective in treating bacterial infections. The first antibiotic discovered was _______, made by the ascomycete cold Penicillium.

penicillin

114

The mold Penicillium produces an antibiotic that ________ the growth of Staphylococcus bacteria.

inhibits

115

Red algae are reddish, owing to a photosynthetic accessory pigment called ________, which masks the green of chlorophyll.

Phycoerythrin

116

______ may be unicellular, colonial, or multi-cellular. And each cell in _______ must obtain its own nutrients from water for survival.

Algae

117

________ are only multi-cellular and possess vascular systems, which allow for the uptake and transport of water and nutrients.

Plants

118

________ ________ have: rings of cellulose-synthesizing proteins, peroxisome enzymes, structure of flagellated sperm, and formation of a phragmoplast.

Land plants

119

There is abundant evidence that much of protist diversity has its origins in ___________, the process in which certain unicellular organisms engulf other cells, which become endosymbionts and ultimately organelles in the host cell.

endosymbiosis

120

The Cretaceous mass extinction that marks the period of dinosaur extinction 65.5 million years ago was between _________ and __________.

Mesozoic, Cenozoic