Review Exercise B

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created 6 years ago by Erin_Cook_Phillips
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1

What are the two causes of voluntary motion?

breathing, patient movement

2

Voluntary motion can best be prevented by

clear communication with the patient

3

What is the primary cause for involuntary motion in the abdomen

peristaltic action of the bowel

4

What is the best mechanism to control involuntary motion

short exposure time

5

true/false:

Because the liver is visible in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, it is not necessary to place a right or left anatomic side marker on the cassette before exposure

false

6

true/false:

For an adult abdomen, a collimation margin must be visible on all four sides of the radiograph

false

7

gonadal shielding should not be used during abdomen radiography if

it obscures essential anatomy

8

Gonadal shielding for _________ may be impossible for studies of the lower abdominopelvic region.

females

9

gonadal shielding for females involves placing the top of the shield at or slightly above the ________, with the bottom at the _________

ASIS

symphysis pubis

10

What exposure considerations would be most ideal for an AP abdomen of an average size adult

70-80 kV

grid

40 inch SID (120 cm)

11

What technical considerations are essential when performing abdomen studies on a young pediatric patient?

short exposure times

high speed IR

reduced kV and mAs

12

true/false:

A radiolucent pad should be placed underneath geriatric patients for added comfort.

true

13

with the use of iodinated contrast media, __________ is able to distinguish between a simple cyst or tumor of the liver

CT

14

the preferred imaging modality for examining the gallbladder quickly is

ultrasound

15

What modality is being used to evaluate patients with appendicitis

ultrasound

16

pneumoperitoneum

free air or gas in the peritoneal cavity

17

ulcerative colitis

inflammatory condition of the colon

18

intussusception

telescoping of a section of bowel into another loop of bowel

19

ascites

abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity

20

adynamic ileus

bowel obstruction caused by a lack of intestinal peristalsis

21

volvulus

a twisting of a loop of bowel creating an obstruction

22

Crohn's disease

chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall that may result in bowel obstruction

23

distended loops of air-filled small intestine

Crohn's disease

24

Air-filled "coiled spring" appearance

intussusception

25

general abnormal haziness

ascites

26

thin crest-shaped radiolucency underneath the diaphragm

pneumoperitoneum

27

deep air-filled mucosal protrusions of colon wall

ulcerative colitis

28

large amount of air trapped in sigmoid colon with a tapered narrowing at the site of obstruction

volvulus

29

The central ray is centered to the level of the ________ for a supine AP projection of the abdomen.

iliac crest

30

exposure for an AP projection of the abdomen should be taken on

end of full expiration

31

rotation can be determined on a KUB radiograph by the loss of symmetric appearance of:

iliac wings

outer rib margin

obturator formina

ischial spines

32

Which type of body habitus may require two crosswise images to be taken if the entire abdomen is to be included?

hypersthenic

33

true/false:

A tall asthenic patient may require two 14x17 inch IRs placed lengthwise if the entire abdomen is to be included.

true

34

true/false:

It is always acceptable during KUB imaging practice to indicate the side of the body with a digital marker.

false

35

Why is it recommended to take abdominal radiographs at the end of patient expiration?

to increase the room for expansion of the abdominal organs

36

Which abdominal structure is not visible on a properly exposed KUB?

pancreas

37

Why may the PA projection of a KUB generally be less desirable than the AP projection?

OID to kidneys

38

Which decubitus position of the abdomen best demonstrates intraperitoneal air in the abdomen?

Left lateral

best for visualization of free air

39

Why should patient be placed in the decubitus position for a minimum of 5 minutes before exposure?

To allow fluid to settle and air to rise

40

Which decubitus position best demonstrates possible aneurysms, calcifications of the aorta, or umbilical hernias?

dorsal decubitus

41

which projection best demonstrates a possible aortic aneurysm in the prevertebral region of the abdomen

lateral position

42

List the projections commonly performed for an acute abdominal series or three-way abdomen series

PA chest

AP erect (or lateral decubitus)

AP supine

43

Which projection of the three way acute abdominal series best demonstrates free air under the diaphragm?

Erect Abdomen

44

Which positioning routine should be used for an acute abdominal series if the patient is too ill to stand?

lateral decubitus abdomen

45

What is the kV setting for PA, erect chest for free air under the diaphragm?

110-125

46

To ensure the diaphragm is included on an erect abdomen projection, the central ray should be at the level of________, which places the top of the 14x17 IR at the level of the _________.

2 inches (5cm) above iliac crest

axilla

47

What is the recommended overlap when using two crosswise images for an AP projection of a supine abdomen of a broad hypersthenic-type patient?

2 inches (5cm) [3-5 cm]

48

What scale of contrast is recommended for visualization of the abdominal structures on an abdominal x-ray?

Long scale