Review Exercise B
What are the two causes of voluntary motion?
breathing, patient movement
Voluntary motion can best be prevented by
clear communication with the patient
What is the primary cause for involuntary motion in the abdomen
peristaltic action of the bowel
What is the best mechanism to control involuntary motion
short exposure time
Because the liver is visible in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, it is not necessary to place a right or left anatomic side marker on the cassette before exposure
For an adult abdomen, a collimation margin must be visible on all four sides of the radiograph
gonadal shielding should not be used during abdomen radiography if
it obscures essential anatomy
Gonadal shielding for _________ may be impossible for studies of the lower abdominopelvic region.
gonadal shielding for females involves placing the top of the shield at or slightly above the ________, with the bottom at the _________
What exposure considerations would be most ideal for an AP abdomen of an average size adult
40 inch SID (120 cm)
What technical considerations are essential when performing abdomen studies on a young pediatric patient?
short exposure times
high speed IR
reduced kV and mAs
A radiolucent pad should be placed underneath geriatric patients for added comfort.
with the use of iodinated contrast media, __________ is able to distinguish between a simple cyst or tumor of the liver
the preferred imaging modality for examining the gallbladder quickly is
What modality is being used to evaluate patients with appendicitis
free air or gas in the peritoneal cavity
inflammatory condition of the colon
telescoping of a section of bowel into another loop of bowel
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity
bowel obstruction caused by a lack of intestinal peristalsis
a twisting of a loop of bowel creating an obstruction
chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall that may result in bowel obstruction
distended loops of air-filled small intestine
Air-filled "coiled spring" appearance
general abnormal haziness
thin crest-shaped radiolucency underneath the diaphragm
deep air-filled mucosal protrusions of colon wall
large amount of air trapped in sigmoid colon with a tapered narrowing at the site of obstruction
The central ray is centered to the level of the ________ for a supine AP projection of the abdomen.
exposure for an AP projection of the abdomen should be taken on
end of full expiration
rotation can be determined on a KUB radiograph by the loss of symmetric appearance of:
outer rib margin
Which type of body habitus may require two crosswise images to be taken if the entire abdomen is to be included?
A tall asthenic patient may require two 14x17 inch IRs placed lengthwise if the entire abdomen is to be included.
It is always acceptable during KUB imaging practice to indicate the side of the body with a digital marker.
Why is it recommended to take abdominal radiographs at the end of patient expiration?
to increase the room for expansion of the abdominal organs
Which abdominal structure is not visible on a properly exposed KUB?
Why may the PA projection of a KUB generally be less desirable than the AP projection?
OID to kidneys
Which decubitus position of the abdomen best demonstrates intraperitoneal air in the abdomen?
best for visualization of free air
Why should patient be placed in the decubitus position for a minimum of 5 minutes before exposure?
To allow fluid to settle and air to rise
Which decubitus position best demonstrates possible aneurysms, calcifications of the aorta, or umbilical hernias?
which projection best demonstrates a possible aortic aneurysm in the prevertebral region of the abdomen
List the projections commonly performed for an acute abdominal series or three-way abdomen series
AP erect (or lateral decubitus)
Which projection of the three way acute abdominal series best demonstrates free air under the diaphragm?
Which positioning routine should be used for an acute abdominal series if the patient is too ill to stand?
lateral decubitus abdomen
What is the kV setting for PA, erect chest for free air under the diaphragm?
To ensure the diaphragm is included on an erect abdomen projection, the central ray should be at the level of________, which places the top of the 14x17 IR at the level of the _________.
2 inches (5cm) above iliac crest
What is the recommended overlap when using two crosswise images for an AP projection of a supine abdomen of a broad hypersthenic-type patient?
2 inches (5cm) [3-5 cm]
What scale of contrast is recommended for visualization of the abdominal structures on an abdominal x-ray?