Chapter 4

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1

A disruption of or interference with function may

Disorder

2

to a condition of abnormal structure or function

Disease

3

When the disease produces a demonstrable change such as a rash or a tumor

organic disease

4

When there is no such physical change, the condition is said to be

functional

5

infectious diseases (those caused by pathogenic organisms), hereditary conditions that are associated with the genetic makeup of the individual, degenerative conditions that involve deterioration of structure or function, traumatic conditions caused by injury, and nutritional diseases that occur in the absence of adequate nourishment.

common way to classify diseases

6

when the body produces an immune response against itself.

Autoimmune

7

self

auto-

8

individual or unknown

Combining form of idi/o

9

condition is one for which the cause is unknown

idiopathic

10

Curvature of the spine for which the reason is unknown

Idiopathic scoliosis

11

one caused by treatment, diagnostic procedure, or other action of the physician

iatrogenic condition

12

ophysician or treatment

iatr/

13

the functional and structural manifestations of disease. In this sense it is often used as a synonym for disease or disorder.

Pathology

14

general term for any disease of the nervous system

neuropathy

15

1. denotes disease 2.to indicate a feeling or a regimen of treatment

-pathy

16

Psychological ailments are typically categorized as

functional

17

The different categories used to classify diseases by their general nature are:

infectious diseases (those caused by pathogenic organisms), hereditary conditions that are associated with the genetic makeup of the individual, degenerative conditions that involve deterioration of structure or function, traumatic conditions caused by injury, and nutritional diseases that occur in the absence of adequate nourishment ad autoimmune diseases that resule when the body produces an immune response against itself

18

is one that is acquired while in the hospital

nosocomial condition

19

disease

combining form nos/o

20

Also called pathogenic microorganisms

pathogens

21

The degree of a microorganism's ability to cause disease

Virulence

22

Another term that means virulence

pathogenicity

23

branch of science that is concerned with the study of microorganisms

Microbiology

24

literally means lung condition

-ia

25

the condition of having stones or calculi

-iasis

26

abnormal stone, most often found in the gallbladder or the urinary tract.

Calculus

27

condition

-osis

28

condition of the nerves

neurosis

29

1. refer to a condition 2. Theory

-ism

30

the theory of health care that relates to the concept of the human being as a functioning whole

holism

31

blood condition of many/excessive cells. The number of red blood cells is excessive.

polycythemia

32

condition of blood

-emia

33

condition of infection in the blood

Septicemia

34

When a blood infection is caused by bacteria

bacteremia

35

deficiency of blood

ischemia

36

lack of blood, although in practice the term anemia is a general term that can indicate a variety of blood conditions

anemia

37

White

leuk/o

38

a condition of white blood cells.

leukemia

39

drooping eyelid, the condition seen in this photo.

blepharoptosis

40

The procedure for correcting drooping eyelid,

blepharoplasty

41

When sagging(-ptosis) begins to occur in the kidney(nephr/o)

nephroptosis

42

eyelids

blephar/o

43

condition of drooping, sagging, or prolapse

-ptosis

44

When sagging(-ptosis) begins to occur in the uterus, prolapse is called

hysteroptosis

45

protrusion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening in the muscle wall of the surrounding cavity

hernia

46

herniation, or denotes a relationship to a hernia.

-cele

(This suffix is usually preceded by a combining form that indicates the anatomic structure that is protruding.)

47

protrusion of the rectum, or a portion of it, through the pelvic wall

rectocele

48

protrusion of the urinary bladder

cystocele

49

another term for an umbilical hernia. . It is a protrusion of a portion of the small intestine through the abdominal wall at the navel.

omphalocele

50

medical term for a stone in a ureter

ureterolith

51

tube connecting the kidney to the bladder

ureter

52

combining form for bile or the biliary system

Chol/e

53

a gallstone

cholelith

54

the medical term for a surgical incision to remove a kidney stone

nephrolithotomy

55

combining form for nose

rhin/o

56

inflammation of the nose, and possibly also paranasal

rhinitis

57

inflammation of the sinuses that surround the nasal cavity

sinusitis

58

inflammation

-itis

59

the body's response to disease and injury

inflammation

60

The classic signs of inflammation

redness, swelling, warmth, and pain, often cited in Latin as rubor, tumor, calor, and dolor

61

Latin word for swelling, in English it may have the same meaning, but more often it refers to a new growth of tissue, often characterized by uncontrolled, progressive multiplication of cells

tumor

62

another term for tumor and means new growth

neoplasm

63

combining form for tumor

onc/o

64

study of tumors

oncology

65

specialist in the treatment of tumors

oncologist

66

suffix that means tumor

-oma

67

a tumor made up of fatty tissue

lipoma

68

combining form for fat

lip/o.

69

a tumor made up of nerve tissue

neuroma

70

When growth is uncontrolled, getting progressively worse, and especially when it spreads to other sites in the body, the tumor is said to be

malgnant

71

a tumor tht in snot malgnant is said to be

benign

72

a malignant tumo is called

cancer which is the Latin word for crab

73

Malignant tumors are called cancers because

they tend to infiltrate, to extend into the surrounding tissues like the legs and claws of a crab

74

benign tumors tend to

be encapsulated and have smooth edges

75

The combining forms for cancer

carcin/o and cancer/o.

76

a malignant tumor

carcinoma

77

pertaining to cancer.

cancerous

78

a type of mental disorder that is characterized by excessive preoccupation with a particular idea or activity

suffix -mania

79

combining form for fire

pyr/o

80

an excessive preoccupation with watching or setting fires

pyromania

81

an abnormal mental state characterized by an unreasonable belief in one's own goodness, greatness, or power

megalomania

82

denotes one who shows such an excessive preoccupation

-maniac

83

person afflicted by megalomania could be described as

megalomaniac

84

fear and refers to a persistent, irrational, and abnormal fear

-phobia

85

fear of spiders

Arachnophobia

86

fear of open spaces or public places. It is based on the Greek word agora, which means marketplace

Agoraphobia

87

fear of enclosed spaces or of being trapped in a small space

claustrophobia