Statistics 146

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1

Statistics.

The science of

collecting

organizing

analyzing,

interpreting data in order to make scientifically based decisions.

2

Descriptive Statistics

The organizing, summarizing, and displaying of data.

3

Inferential Statistics.

Using samples to draw conclusions about populations

4

Variable

The characteristic that is being measured or observed. The variable will generally be labeled on the X-axis .

5

Qualitative Variable.

Data consisting of
attributes or labels.

6

Quantitative Variable.

Data consisting of pure
numerical measurements.

7

Scatter Plot.

A graph that shows paired data, rather than just data in classes like a histogram. The data shows the correlation between two variables.

8

Data Collection
Take A Census.

Measure the entire population.

9

Data Collection

Take A Sample

Measure part of the population

10

Data Collection

Perform Experiments.

Induce treatments, observe responses.

11

P arameter.

A numerical description of a population characteristic

12

S tatistic.

A numerical description of a sample characteristic

13

P opulation. .

The collection of all outcomes, responses, and measurements.

14

S ample.

A subset of a population

15

Random Sample

Each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.

16

Random .

1. Having a value that can not be determined before the value is taken, but can only be determined probabilistically (such as a random variable).
2. Chosen without regard to any characteristics of the individual members of the population so that each member has an equal chance of being selected.

17

Stratified Sample.

Taking samples from each segment of the population.

18

Cluster Sample. .

A sample taken from a population that contains naturally occurring subgroups

19

Systematic Sample.

Each member is selected at orderly intervals.

20

Convenience Sample.

A sample which consists of only readily available elements.

21

Distributions Using a Histogram

Cumulative Frequency Distribution (Ogive) .

A graph that shows the cumulative total of each data count.

22

Distributions Using a Histogram

Frequency Distribution.

A histogram that shows classes (intervals) of data counts.

23

Distributions Using a Histogram

Relative Frequency Distribution .

A histogram that shows the percent of data that falls into classes (intervals).