Caring for Patients from different Cultures
Cultural Competence: Cultural Sensitivity
PATIENT CENTERED CARE
Understanding our own culture and biases, becoming sensitive to the cultures of others and appreciating the differences
The four C's of culture
1) Call...What do you call your problem/what do you think is wrong?
2) Cause...What do you think caused your problem?
3) Cope ... How do you cope with your problem?
4) Concerns... What concerns do you have regarding your condition?
Culture encompasses beliefs and behaviors that are learned and shared by members of a group.
Smaller groups of people sharing certain characteristic that are not shared by the culture at large. e.g. ethnicity, occupation, gangs. sexual orientation (Even nursing and medicine)
AN ENDING POINT
Placing assumptions on a group of people rather than on the individual themselves
e.g., assuming all Mexicans have large families
A BEGINNING POINT
Taking a common thread of a group of people and finding out if it works on an individual level. e.g., taking the time to find out about the size of the family.
The things that we hold important ... values in the United States~ independence, autonomy,privacy, health and fitness,physical appearance
Emic & Etic
Emic~ the insiders perspectives, the natives view of his own behavior
Etic~ the perspectives of those from outsiders
The view that one's own culture's way is dong things the correct way or right way
MOST PEOPLE THINK THIS WAY
The view that other ways of doing things are different but equally valid.
One's focus regarding time:
Present time orientation is what is happening now. not concerned about their future.
Future orientated is thinking long term by preventive actions
Past orientation would have more of an interest in traditional medicine, doing what has always been done.
Can also have to do with time; as in watching the clock schedule as opposed to activity schedule
USED MORE IN THE MEDICAL CULTURE: People are not of equal status and respect
People are seen on an equal level
Family of Orientation
Family that one is born in to: parents, brothers, sisters, grandparents
Family of Procreation
One formed through marriage or procreation; wife, husband, children
Models of disease
Magico-religious model ~ Where God's or supernatural forces dominate or influence others. Biomedical model~seen as being controlled by a series of physical or biomedical processes
Holistic Model~forces of nature must be kept in balance and harmony.
yang ~ hot
yin ~ cold
Two important points regarding etiology
1)The treatment must be appropriate to the cause
2)We must not let our enthnocentrism blind us to the merits in the beliefs of other cultures.