Chapter 16 - Opthalmic (Nicola)

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1

What is the cavity of the eye located anterior to the iris and containing the aqueous humor

Anterior Chamber

2

What is the area behind the iris, but in front of and behind the lens

Posterior Chamber

3

Where is the Aqueous Humor found

In the anterior chamber

4

Where is the Vitreous humor found

In the posterior chamber

5

What is the transparent jelly-like substance that fills the posterior chamber

Vitreous humor

6

What is similar to Choroid, but contains larger vessels. It's function is to alter the shape of the Crystalline Lens

Ciliary body (Intrinsic muscle)function

7

What provides structure, protection and strength to the eye

Sclera function

8

What are pupil-constricting agents that act on the sphincter of the iris

Miotic Agents
Pilocarpine Hydrochloride (Isopito Carpine)
Carbachol (Carbacel)

9

What drugs cause pupil dilation by paralyzing the iris. Paralye the ciliary muscle, inhibits focusing after dilation

Cyclplegic agents

10

What is the dense, white, fibrous membrane that, with the cornea, forms the external covering of the eyeball

Sclera

11

What makes up the inner tunic and is the delicate nervous membrane on which images are received

Retina function

12

What surgery is performed to restore the function of the eyelid by creating an upper lid fold combined with elevation of the lid

Surgical Repair of Ptosis
AKA= Blepharoplasty

13

What is the medical name for "Lid Lag"
It is a dropping of the upper eyelid and may be congenital or aquired. Dystrophy of the Levator Muscle

Ptosis

14

What are the retinal-receiving units called

Rods and cones

15

What are rods and cones

Photoreceptors in the sensory layer of the Retina

16

What means rainbow. it is perforated at the center of the pupil which allows for the transmission of light into the eye

Iris function

17

What secretes the tears that keep the conjunctiva moist. located within the upper eyelid near the outer angle of the orbit, on the inner side of the external angular process of the frontal bone.

Lacrimal Glands/ducts function

18

O.S. Oculus Sinister

Left Eye

19

What excessive Scar tissue causes scleral buckles to fail approximately 5-10% of the time

Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy (PVR)

20

What are the most common local anesthetics

Tetracaine (Pontocaine)
Proparacaine (Opthaine)
Hyaluronidase (Wydase) or Epinephrine may be added to the solution to prolong the duration of the block

21

What is the condition which Lower eye and eyelashes roll inward towards the eye

Entropion

22

What is the name of the mucous membrane covering the eye

Conjunctiva function

23

What is transparent, and forms 1/6 of the globe (eyeball), forms part of the external tunic of the eye
Consist of 4 layers

Cornea function

24

What along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina, thus allowing a sharp real image of the object of interest to be formed on the retina

Lens function

25

What is the eyeball itself called

Globe

26

Condition of the lens that is treated by cataract extraction

Opacified

27

Which procedure would sutures not be necessary

Extracapsular cataract extraction

28

Name of the opening in outer tunic for vitreous

Sclerotomy

29

Where are veirs rod placed to relieve or prevent obstruction

Canaliculus

30

Name of structure that is a small depression containing cones

Central fovea function

31

What is the angular junction of the eyelid

Canthus function

32

Refractive Media of the Eye includes what anatomy

The Cornea, Aqueous Humor, Lens, Vitreous Humor

33

Thick connective tissue structure that provides integrity to the shape of the eye lid

Tarsal plate function

34

What anesthesia is performed by injecting the anesthetic drug in the orbit further back behind the eye ball, which is near the nerves that control eye movement and sensation, and is typically the anesthetic block for a vitrectomy procedure

Retrobulbar

35

What anesthesia is performed by injecting the anesthetic drug in the orbit around the equator of the eye ball (globe).

Peribulbar

36

Transparent, forms 1/6 of the globe (eyeball)

Cornea

37

What comprises of the middle tunic

Choroid, Ciliary Body, Iris

38

O.D. = Oculus Dexter

Right Eye

39

What is a thin highly vascular membrane that makes up the POSTERIOR 5/6 of the eye.

Choroid

40

What uses ultrasonic energy to fragment the lens while simultaneously irrigating and aspirating the fragments. Used for removing opaque lens

Phacoemulsification

41

What is a probe that uses heat to coagulate or destroy tissue

Diathermy

42

What is a misalignmen (crosseye) or deviation of the eyes that normally work simultaneously to track visual objects

Strabismus

43

Provide Color and Sharpness

Cones

44

What uses Recession or Resection of the muscles of the eye

Strabismus surgery

45

What are some Anti-inflammatory Agents

Includes Steroids, NSAIDs
Used in traumatic eye injuries to decrease inflammation.
Prednisolone (PreMild)
Dexamethasone (Decadrone)
Betamethasone (Celestone Suspension)

46

What is a small lump on the inner or outer surface of the eyelid. It is caused by an inflammatory reaction to material trapped inside an oil-secreting gland in the eyelid.

Chalazion surgery

47

What is a method for surgically removing a cataract through an incision in the side of the cornea and replacing the diseased lens with an intraocular implant

Extracapsular cataract extraction

48

What is a method for surgically removing a cataract by injecting alpha chymotrypsin into the posterior chamber to digest the suspensory ligament so that the diseased lens can be removed in its entirety

Intracapsular cataract extraction

49

What is a pathological condition in which the crystalline lens has become opaque due to age or trauma

Cataract

50

What three types of iridectomy procedures are performed for glaucoma

Peripheral
Radial
Sector

51

What is performed to reestablish communication between the anterior and posterior chambers, relieving pupillary block, and to reestablish the outflow of aqueous humor through the Schlemm canal

Iridectomy Procedure

52

What refers to the inability of the aqueous fluid to exit the eye due to blockage by the iris, placing extreme pressure on the optic nerve

Glaucoma

53

What is the surgical procedure for a Corneal transplant, Cornea is the anterior window of the eye. During corneal transplant surgery, only the central part of the cornea is replaced.

Keratoplasty

54

What is performed to open blocked tear ducts

Lacrimal duct dilation

55

What rarely occurs within 2 weeks and may occur as late as 20 years

Keratoplasty – when can graft be rejected

56

During which cataract surgery does the posterior capsule remains. Traction Sutures are used to stabilize the globe during the surgical procedure

Extracapular Cataract extraction

57

Trigeminal Nerve

Fifth Cranial Nerve

58

Extracapular and Intracapular

Cataract Extraction methods

59

What is the most common dystrophy of the cornea

Keratoconus

60

What is the procedure used to correct a retinal detachment

Scleral buckle

61

What is performed to assist in the drainage of tears and secretions from the lacrimal sac into the middle meatus of the nose by forming a short circuit through the lacrimal bone and the nasal mucosa. It opens blocked tear ducts

Dacryocystorhinostomy

62

During which surgery does the surgeon enters the eye through Pars Plana => avoids damage to retina and lens

Vitrectomy

63

What is a microsurgical procedure in which specialized micro instruments and techniques are used to repair retinal disorders (ex: Ocutome)

Vitrectomy

64

Which names represent an eye speculum that resembles uncoiled paper clips

Barraquer

65

Name of membrane that contains the vitrous humor in post cavity

Hyaloid

66

What at passes through the canal of schlemm

Aqueous humor

67

Which procedure involves adjusting sutures after the patient has recovered within 24 hours

Recession/restriction

68

Right eye of a patient and assigning clock positions 12,3,6,9 to rectus eye muscle which is correct

12 superior, 3 medial, 6 inferior, 9 lateral

69

How many tunics comprise the globe

Three

70

What is an inward turning of the eyelid with corneal irritation

Entropian

71

When Complete Removal of the Eye is indicated for excision of an eye due to malignant neoplasm, penetrating wounds, or if the eye has been so extensively damaged that no vision can be regained

Enucleation

72

What is a probe that uses heat to coagulate or destroy tissue

Trabeculoplasty

73

What eliminates corneal sensitivity and allows the patient to wear a prosthetic eye that will have mobility and a better cosmetic result. Removal of the contents of the eyeball, leaving the sclera and sometimes the cornea.

Evisceration

74

In a Strabismus Correction what has a greater effect on the lateral rectus

Resection

75

Which eye muscle produces the following eye movement:
Upwards and toward the midline

Superior rectus

76

Which eye muscle produces the following eye movement:
Downward and toward the midline

Inferior rectus

77

Which eye muscle produces the following eye movement:
Toward the midline

Medial rectus

78

Which eye muscle produces the following eye movement:
Away from the midline

Lateral rectus

79

Which eye muscle produces the following eye movement:
Downward and away from the midline

Superior Oblique

80

Which eye muscle produces the following eye movement:
Upward and away from the midline

Inferior Oblique

81

In a Strabismus Correction what is generally more effective when performed on the vertically acting muscles

Recession

82

What is the irrigant used for the eye during eye procedures

BSS

83

Which pharmacologic agent constricts pupils

Acetylcholine chloride

84

What is a sterile aqueous suspension, and Anti-inflammatory

betamethasone (Celestone suspension)

85

tropicamide - Mydriacyl
cyclopentolate - Cyclogyl
atropine sulfate - Atropisol

Pupil dilation with inability to focus
Cataract extraction and vitrectomy

Preoperative mydriasis and cycloplegia

86

phenylephrine HCl Neo-Synephrine
Cataract extraction and vitrectomy

Pupil dilation by paralyzing the iris sphincter—does not affect the ability to focus

Preoperative mydriasis

87

What causes pupil dilation by paralyzing the iris. Used to optimize pupil dilation for removal of a diseased lens. Allow patient to focus after dilation

Mydriatics

88

pilocarpine HCl - Pilocar
Cataract extraction—assists in holding the intraocular lens (IOL) in place and promotes the flow of aqueous humor

Pupil constriction

Postoperative miosis; treatment of glaucoma
MIOTIC

89

acetylcholine HCl - Miochol
Cataract extraction—assists in holding the intraocular lens (IOL) in place and promotes the flow of aqueous humor

Intraoperative miosis

Intraoperative miosis - MIOTIC

90

betamethasone - Celestone
Reduces inflam

Postoperative inflammation
Steroid

91

What are used preoperatively to shrink the vitreous body, reducing intraocular pressure

Hyperosmotic Diuretics

92

What is dexamethasone sodium phosphate - OcuDex, Decadron

Postoperative inflammation

93

What agents is used to keep pressure on retina

Perfluoropropane
Sulfur hexafluoride

94

What can Vitreous Humor be replaced with

1)Intraocular Gases:
Perfluoropropane
Sulfur Hexafluoride
2)Silicone Oil
3)Sodium Hyaluronate

95

Trephine is used in which procedure

Keratoplasty

96

Where is the lacrimal gland is located

Upper lid, outer angle of orbid

97

What are the traction sutures used to manipulate the globe

Bridle sutures

98

What is the normal condition of the lens of the eye

Transparent and biconvex

99

What drops are used to numb the surface of the eye

Tetracaine

100

What suture, usually nonabsorable, is placed around a structure for retraction

What is a traction suture

101

Which is the term for cross eyed

Estropia

102

What condition, known as near-sightedness and short-sightedness, where the light that comes in does not directly focus on the retina but in front of it, causing the image that one sees when looking at a distant object to be out of focus

Myopia

103

Which needle is used frequently

3/8 circle spatula

104

What is a vision condition involving the loss of the eye's ability to focus on close objects "old eye"

Presbyopia

105

What is the visual defect in one object that is seen in duplicate

Diplopia

106

Name of the opening in outer tunic for vitreous

Sclerotomy

107

Which techniques uses a laser to treat retinal tears or proliferative diabetic retinopathy

Endophotocoagulation

108

What uses cold to seal retinal tears and holes

Cryotherapy

109

Which procedure may be done in conjunction with vitectomy if surgeon is unable to gain visualization of the posterior cavity

Lensectomy

110

What is the unit of measurement of the optical power of a magnifying lens

Diopter

111

Name of the line of miniscapel blades in optho and ent

Beaver

112

What are Porous circumfrential band of tiny canals

Trabecular meshwork

113

What is heraditory, progressive, noninflammatory disease of the anterior surface of the eye

Corneal dystrophy

114

What is a variable rate, reciprocating and cutting tip

Vitrector

115

True and false

1.F 2.T 3.T 4.T 5.F