Ch 54 Community Ecology

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1

According to the principle of competitive exclusion, two species cannot continue to occupy the same _____.

A.territory
B.range
C.biome
D.ecological niche
E.environmental habitat

D

2

Of the choices below, which best describes the effect predation has on the predator/prey organisms involved in the relationship?

A.no effect ... benefit
B.benefit ... benefit
C.harmed ... harmed
D.benefit ... no effect
E.benefit ... harmed

E

3

The term used to describe a harmless organism resembling a harmful one is _____.

A.aposematic coloration
B.Müllerian mimicry
C.warning coloration
D.Batesian mimicry
E.cryptic coloration

D

4

Cellulose-digesting microorganisms live in the guts of termites and ruminant mammals. The microorganisms have a home and food, and their hosts gain more nutrition from their meals. This relationship is an example of _____.

A.herbivory
B.commensalism
C.parasitism
D.mutualism
E.predation

D

5

In the hypothesis that C. stellatus (a species of barnacle) is competitively excluded from the lower intertidal zone by B. balanoides (another species of barnacle), what could be concluded about the two species?

A.The fundamental and realized niches of B. balanoides are different, but the fundamental and realized niches of C. stellatus are identical.
B.The fundamental and realized niches of B. balanoides and C. stellatus are identical.
C.The fundamental and realized niches of B. balanoides and C. stellatus are different.
D.The fundamental and realized niches of B. balanoides are identical, but the fundamental and realized niches of C. stellatus are different.

D

6

As you study two closely related predatory insect species, the two-spot and the three-spot avenger beetles, you notice that each species seeks prey at dawn in areas without the other species. However, where their ranges overlap, the two-spot avenger beetle hunts at night and the three-spot hunts in the morning. When you bring them into the laboratory and isolate the two different species, you discover that the offspring of both species are found to be nocturnal. You have discovered an example of _____.

A.Batesian mimicry
B.character displacement
C.resource partitioning
D.mutualism

C

7

Which of the following statements is consistent with the principle of competitive exclusion?

A.The random distribution of one competing species will have a positive impact on the population growth of the other competing species.
B.Natural selection tends to increase competition between related species.
C.Even a slight reproductive advantage will eventually lead to the elimination of the less well adapted of two competing species.
D.Two species with the same fundamental niche will exclude other competing species.

C

8

The symbols +, -, and o are to be used to show the results of interactions between individuals and groups of individuals in the examples that follow. The symbol + denotes a positive interaction, - denotes a negative interaction, and o denotes where individuals are not affected by interacting. The first symbol refers to the first organism mentioned.

What interactions exist between a tick on a dog and the dog?

A.+/o
B.+/-
C.o/o
D.-/-

B

9

If two species are close competitors, and one species is experimentally removed from the community, the remaining species would be expected to _____.

A.expand its realized niche
B.decline in abundance
C.change its fundamental niche
D.become the target of specialized parasites

A

10
card image

During a one-year study, researchers found no difference in treehopper populations in any of their control and experimental groups. What could they measure during the second year to gain information about why this might have occurred?

A.Measure the relative abundance of jumping spiders.
B.Measure the relative sizes of the treehoppers.
C.Measure the relative sizes of different ant species.
D.Measure the number of ant females.

A

11

Resource partitioning would be most likely to occur between _____.

A.sympatric populations of species with similar ecological niches
B.allopatric populations of species with similar ecological niches
C.sympatric populations of a flowering plant and its specialized insect pollinator
D.allopatric populations of the same animal species

A

12

Which of the following is an example of cryptic coloration?

A.markings of a viceroy butterfly's wings
B.brown or gray color of tree bark
C.a "walking stick" insect that resembles a twig
D.bands on a coral snake

C

13

Which of the following is an example of Batesian mimicry?

A.a fawn with fur coloring that camouflages it in the forest environment
B.a nonvenomous snake that looks like a venomous snake
C.a butterfly that resembles a leaf
D.a snapping turtle that uses its tongue to mimic a worm, thus attracting fish

B

14

Which of the following is an example of Müllerian mimicry?

A.a chameleon that changes its color to look like a dead leaf
B.a day-flying hawkmoth that looks like a wasp
C.two species of unpalatable butterfly that have the same color pattern
D.two species of rattlesnakes that both rattle their tails

C

15

Which of the following is an example of aposematic coloration?

A.green color of a plant
B.the brightly colored patterns of poison dart frogs
C.eye color in humans
D.a katydid whose wings look like a dead leaf

B

16

In some circumstances, grasses benefit from being grazed. Which of the following terms would best describe such a plant-herbivore interaction?

A.mutualism
B.parasitism
C.predation
D.commensalism

A

17

Which of the following studies would a community ecologist undertake to learn about competitive interactions?
I) selectivity of nest sites among cavity-nesting songbirds
II) the grass species preferred by grazing pronghorn antelope and bison
III) stomach analysis of brown trout and brook trout in streams where they coexist

A.only I and II
B.only II and III
C.I, II, and III
D.only I and III

C

18

In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____.

A.tertiary consumers
B.detritivores
C.producers
D.secondary consumers
E.primary consumers

C

19

An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____.

A.primary consumer
B.producer
C.secondary consumer
D.detritivore
E.tertiary consumer

D

20

When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____.

A.tertiary consumer
B.secondary consumer
C.detritivore
D.primary consumer
E.producer

B

21

A cow eating grass is an example of a _____.

A.tertiary consumer
B.detritivore
C.producer
D.secondary consumer
E.primary consumer

E

22

A human who just ate a hamburger is eaten by a shark while swimming. The shark is acting as a _____.

A.detritivore
B.producer
C.tertiary consumer
D.secondary consumer
E.primary consumer

C

23

Keystone species are those species _____.

A.whose absence would cause major disruption in a community
B.that live primarily on or under rocks and stones
C.that provide important foods and medicines
D.with the largest number of individuals in a community
E.that have the most biomass in the community

A

24

An organism's "trophic level" refers to _____.

A.its food source
B.whether it is early or late in ecological succession
C.where it lives
D.the rate at which it uses energy
E.the intensity of its competition with other species

A

25
card image

What does the graph in the figure above tell you about the definition of a keystone species?

A.Adding a keystone species to the community will make it more diverse.
B.Removing a keystone species from the community will eventually allow for the invasion of a new species.
C.A keystone species has little interaction with other species in an environment.
D.Removing a keystone species from the community drastically reduces diversity.

D

26
card image

In the figure above, which community has the highest species diversity?

A.Community 1
B.Community 2
C.Community 4
D.Community 1 and community 3 have the highest species diversity.

B

27

Elephants are not the most dominant species in African grasslands, yet they influence community structure. The grasslands contain scattered woody plants, but they are kept in check by the uprooting activities of the elephants. Take away the elephants, and the grasslands convert to forests or to shrublands. The newly growing forests support fewer species than the previous grasslands. Which of the following describes why elephants are the keystone species in this scenario?

A.Grazing animals depend upon the elephants to convert forests to grassland.
B.Elephants exhibit a disproportionate influence on the structure of the community relative to their abundance.
C.Elephants help other populations survive by keeping out many of the large African predators.
D.Elephants are the biggest herbivore in this community.

B

28

Approximately how many kilograms (kg) of carnivore (secondary consumer) biomass can be supported by a field plot containing 1000 kg of plant material?

A.1000
B.100
C.10
D.1

C

29
card image

According to the Shannon Diversity Index, which of the five blocks above, with each containing thirty-six squares, would show the greatest diversity?

A.1
B.2
C.4
D.5

D

30

Imagine five forest communities, each with one hundred individuals distributed among four different tree species (W, X, Y, and Z). Which forest community would be most diverse?

A.40W, 30X, 20Y, 10Z
B.25W, 25X, 25Y, 25Z
C.50W, 25X, 15Y, 10Z
D.70W, 10X, 10Y, 10Z

B

31
card image

Which letter represents an organism that could be a producer?

A.A
B.B
C.D
D.E

B

32

Which of the following could qualify as a top-down control on a grassland community?

A.influence of soil nutrients on the abundance of grasses versus wildflowers
B.effect of grazing intensity by bison on plant species diversity
C.influence of temperature on competition among plants
D.limitation of plant biomass by rainfall amount

B

33

Food chains are sometimes short because _____.

A.only a single species of herbivore feeds on each plant species
B.most of the energy in a trophic level is lost as it passes to the next higher level
C.predator species tend to be less diverse and less abundant than prey species
D.local extinction of a species causes extinction of the other species in its food chain

B

34

Keystone predators can maintain species diversity in a community if they _____.

A.competitively exclude other predators
B.allow immigration of other predators
C.prey on the community's dominant species
D.prey only on the least abundant species in the community

C

35

Which of these is a starting point for primary succession?

A.abandoned farmland
B.none of these is a starting point for primary succession
C.a surface exposed by a retreating glacier
D.an abandoned city
E.a neglected yard

C

36

Which of the following statements is in accordance with F. E. Clements’ view that species in a community function as an integrated unit?

A.Species composition is determined by island size and distance from the mainland.
B.Most communities are not at equilibrium.
C.A community at a particular site has only one stable equilibrium.
D.Most communities are chance assemblages of species found together because they have similar abiotic requirements.
E.Food chains are not isolated units but are linked together in food webs.

C

37

Which of the following best illustrates ecological succession?

A.Decomposition in soil releases nitrogen that plants can use.
B.Introduced pheasants increase, and native quail populations disappear.
C.Overgrazing causes a nutrient loss from soil.
D.Grass grows on a sand dune, is replaced by shrubs, and then by trees.
E.A mouse eats seeds, and an owl eats the mouse.

D

38

What is the main advantage of controlled burnings of forested areas? Controlled burnings _____.

A.allow new species to form
B.clear forested areas for farmland
C.prevent the overgrowth of the underbrush
D.eliminate the possibility of forest fires

C

39

According to the nonequilibrium model of community diversity, _____.

A.communities are assemblages of closely linked species that are irreparably changed by disturbance
B.communities are constantly changing after being influenced by disturbances
C.community structure remains stable in the absence of interspecific competition
D.interspecific interactions induce changes in community composition over time

B

40

Based on the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, a community's species diversity is increased by _____.

A.stable conditions with no disturbance
B.moderate levels of disturbance
C.frequent massive disturbance
D.intensive disturbance by humans

B

41

According to MacArthur and Wilson's hypothesis of island biogeography, species immigration and extinction rates on a particular island correlate to _____.

A.the number of other islands in the archipelago
B.the island's stage of ecological succession
C.when the island formed
D.how the island formed
E.the island's size and distance from the mainland

E

42

What kind of island has the highest rate of extinction?

A.a small island
B.a large island
C.an island that is close to the mainland
D.an island that is distant from the mainland
E.cannot be determined from the graph

A

43

On what kind of island would new species be most likely to arrive?

A.a small island
B.a large island
C.an island that is close to the mainland
D.an island that is distant from the mainland
E.cannot be determined from the graph

C

44

The equilibrium theory of island biogeography predicts that large islands close to the mainland will have more species than small islands that are distant from the mainland.
Which of the following factors does not contribute to that prediction?

A.Large islands support larger populations than small islands. Small populations are more likely to go extinct.
B.Evolution occurs more rapidly on large islands, thereby increasing species diversity.
C.It is easier for a species to reach an island that is near the mainland than one that is distant.
D.A large island is likely to have greater geographic diversity than a small island, making it more likely that newly arrived species will find appropriate habitats.

B

45
card image

Which island would likely have the greatest species diversity?

A.A
B.C
C.D
D.E

A

46

Which of the following is a widely supported explanation for the tendency of tropical communities to have greater species diversity than temperate or polar communities?

A.Tropical communities are generally older than temperate and polar communities.
B.Tropical communities are low in altitude, whereas temperate and polar communities are high in altitude.
C.More competitive dominant species have evolved in temperate and polar communities.
D.There are fewer parasites to negatively affect the health of tropical communities.

A

47
card image

Which island would likely have the lowest extinction rate?

A.A
B.C
C.D
D.E

A

48

Why is a pathogen generally more virulent in a new habitat?

A.New environments are almost always smaller in area so that transmission of pathogens is easily accomplished between hosts.
B.Intermediate host species are more motile and transport pathogens to new areas.
C.Pathogens evolve more efficient forms of reproduction in new environments.
D.Hosts in new environments have not had a chance to become resistant to the pathogen through natural selection.

D

49

Zoonotic disease _____.

A.is caused by pathogens that are transferred from other animals to B.humans by direct contact or by means of a vector
C.is caused by suborganismal pathogens such as viruses, viroids, and prions only
D.can only be spread from animals to humans through direct contact
E.can only be transferred from animals to humans by means of an intermediate host

A

50

What is a likely outcome of a moderate disturbance, such as a severe thunderstorm?
Select all that apply.

A.Loss of an equilibrium state of balance, leading to a less healthy community
B.Patches of different habitats within the landscape
C.Reduced species diversity within a community

B

51

Which of the following may result from resource partitioning?
Select all that apply.

A.Competing species may partition time, feeding at different times of day.
B.A population may have a smaller realized niche when it coexists with a competitor.
C.A population’s fundamental niche may be smaller than its realized niche.

A & B

52

Select the correct statement(s) about a terrestrial food chain.
Select all that apply.

A.About 1% of the energy stored in producers is converted to organic matter at the secondary consumer level.
B.Energy is transferred from decomposers to plants to herbivores to carnivores.
C.The total biomass of the top trophic level is greatest because the top consumers are large.

A

53

Select the correct statement(s) about the transfer of food energy up the trophic levels from its source in autotrophs.
Select all that apply.

A.An organism feeds at only one trophic level.
B.Few plants have adaptations to reduce feeding by herbivores.
C.The length of a food chain is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain.

C

54

Gray wolves, once the top predators in Yellowstone National Park, were hunted to extinction there in 1926. In 1995, 15 wolves were brought to Yellowstone from Alberta. The wolf population has now grown to 300.
The forest community in Yellowstone National Park can be described by a top-down model of community organization. Wolves hunt and eat elk. Elk are herbivores that prefer riparian vegetation (plants growing next to streams and lakes). Ravens, bears, and eagles feed on elk carcasses.
How would you expect the return of the wolves to Yellowstone to affect the other species there?
Select all that apply.

A.Riparian vegetation would decline.
B.Elk populations would decline.
C.Bear populations would decline.

B