The Lymphatic System and Immunity

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Anatomy and Physiology
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1

Which of the following is NOT a function of the lymphatic and immune system?

a) Draining excess interstitial fluid

b) Maintaining water homeostasis in the body

c) Transporting dietary lipids

d) Carrying out immune responses

b

2

What is the major difference between lymph and interstitial fluid?

  1. a) Composition of electrolytes
  2. b) White blood cells are present in lymph
  3. c) Location
  4. d) Types of proteins present
  5. e) Red blood cells are present in interstitial fluid

c

3

Lack of resistance is also known as:

  1. a) Pathogenic
  2. b) Innate
  3. c) Specific
  4. d) Susceptibility
  5. e) Lymphatic

d

4

What causes lymph from the small intestines to appear white?

  1. a) Proteins
  2. b) WBC
  3. c) RBC
  4. d) Lipids
  5. e) Carbohydrates

d

5

Which of the following is not considered an organ of the immune system?

  1. a) Spleen
  2. b) Lymph node
  3. c) Red bone marrow
  4. d) Thymus
  5. e) Pancreas

e

6

The left subclavian vein receives lymph from the

a) Left axillary vein

b) Lumbar trunk

c) Jugular trunk

d) Thoracic duct

e) Right lymphatic duct

d

7

The skeletal muscle and respiratory pumps are used in the

a) Lymphatic system

b) Cardiovascular system

c) Immune system

d) Lymphatic and Immune systems only

e) Lymphatic, Immune and Cardiovascular systems

e

8

Which organ produces a hormone that promotes maturation of T cells?

a) Spleen

b) Lymph node

c) Red bone marrow

d) Thymus

e) Pancreas

d

9

In which part of the thymus are T cells thought to die?

a) Capsule

b) Trabeculae

c) Epithelial cells

d) Thymic (Hassall’s) corpuscles

e) T cells do not die in the thymus

d

10

Which of the following is a function of the lymphatic system?

a) Drain excessive interstitial fluid

b) Transport dietary lipids

c) Carry out immune responses

d) All of these are functions of the lymphatic system

e) None of these are functions of the lymphatic system

d

11

Which of the following is a function of the spleen?

a) Removes worn out blood cells

b) Circulates lymph

c) Cleanses interstitial fluid

d) Cleanses lymph

e) Traps microbes with mucus

a

12

Which of these does NOT provide a physical or chemical barrier?

a) Macrophages

b) Saliva

c) Urine

d) Mucus

e) Stratified squamous epithelium

a

13

Which of these provides a non-specific cellular disease resistance mechanism?

a) Macrophages

b) T lymphocytes

c) B lymphocytes

d) Memory B cells

e) Stratified squamous epithelium

a

14

Which anti-microbial substances reduce viral replication (in uninfected cells)?

  1. a) Transferrins
  2. b) Perforins
  3. c) Complement proteins
  4. d) Defensins
  5. e) Interferons

e

15

Which anti-microbial substances promote cytolysis, phagocytosis and inflammation?

a) Transferrins

b) Perforins

c) Complement proteins

d) Defensins

e) Interferons

c

16

Which of the following is NOT a sign of inflammation?

a) Redness

b) Pain

c) Heat

d) Mucus production

e) Swelling

d

17

Which of the following intensifies the effect of interferons and promotes the rate of repair?

a) Complement proteins

b) Perforin

c) Fever

d) Macrophages

e) Natural killer cells

c

18

Which chemical(s) do NOT induce vasodilation and permeability (increased fluid flow) to an infection site?

  1. a) Histamines
  2. b) Kinins
  3. c) Perforin
  4. d) Leukotrienes
  5. e) Complement

c

19

When B and T cells are fully developed and mature, they are described as being

a) Immunocompetent

b) Pluripotent stem cells

c) Primary lymphatic cells

d) Specifically promoted

e) Germ cells

a

20

Which of the following induces the production of a specific antibody?

  1. a) Phagocytosis
  2. b) Antigen
  3. c) Antibody
  4. d) Defensin
  5. e) Immunoglobulin

b

21

Which of the following stimulates an immune response ONLY when it is attached to a large carrier molecule?

  1. a) Epitope
  2. b) Antigen
  3. c) Hapten
  4. d) MHC antigen
  5. e) CD8

c

22

Genetic recombination generates diversity in what part (s) of the immune system?

  1. a) Antigen receptors
  2. b) MHC antigen
  3. c) Hapten
  4. d) MHC antigen and antigen receptors
  5. e) Epitopes

d

23

Which class of cells includes macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells?

  1. a) Antigen presenting cells
  2. b) Primary lymphocytes
  3. c) T cells
  4. d) RBC
  5. e) Epitope cells

a

24

To become activated, which of the following requires being bound to a foreign antigen AND simultaneous costimulation?

  1. a) B Cell
  2. b) T Cell
  3. c) Interferon
  4. d) MHC antigen
  5. e) Antigen presenting cell

b

25

Which cells display CD4 proteins and interact with MHC Class II antigens?

a) Cytotoxic T cells

b) Helper T Cells

c) Memory T Cells

d) MHC antigens

e) B cells

b

26

Which T cell toxin fragments DNA?

a) Perforin

b) Tumor antigen

c) Interferons

d) Lymphotoxin

e) Toxin T

d

27

Which class of antibodies is mainly found in sweat, tears, breast milk and GI secretions?

  1. a) IgG
  2. b) IgA
  3. c) IgM
  4. d) IgD
  5. e) IgE

b

28

Which of the following leads to inflammation, enhancement of phagocytosis and lysis of microbes?

a) Classical complement system

b) Alternative complement system

c) Apoptosis

d) Classical and Alternative complement systems

e) Hapten activation

d

29

Which action makes microbes more susceptible to phagocytosis?

a) Opsonization

b) Cytolysis

c) Inflammation

d) Complement

e) Hybridoma

a

30

Which of the following is an inactive, self responsive cell?

a) Deleted cell

b) Hybridoma cell

c) Epitopic cell

d) Anergy cell

e) Natural killer cell

d

31
card image

In the diagram, where do pluripotent stem cells come from?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) None of these choices

b

32
card image

In the diagram, where do T cells mature?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) None of these choices

a

33
card image

In the diagram this vessel drains lymph from the upper right side of the body into venous blood using a subclavian vein.

  1. a) B
  2. b) C
  3. c) F
  4. d) G
  5. e) E

b

34
card image

Which region includes B cells, follicular dendritic cells and macrophages?

  1. a) B
  2. b) C
  3. c) D
  4. d) E
  5. e) F

b

35
card image

In the diagram, which region includes B cells, plasma cells and macrophages?

  1. a) B
  2. b) C
  3. c) D
  4. d) E

e) None of these choices

c

36

An acute allergic response can lead to:

  1. a) transplantation
  2. b) retroviruses
  3. c) anaphylactic shock
  4. d) passive immunity
  5. e) active immunity

c

37

Natural exposure to an infectious agent leads to:

a) Passive immunity

b) Active immunity

c) Both of these choices

d) None of these choices

b

38

Which class of antibodies indicates a recent invasion?

  1. a) IgA
  2. b) IgE
  3. c) IgM
  4. d) IgD
  5. e) IgG

c

39

Which of the following cells is part of the body’s second line of defense?

a) Mucous cells

b) Germ cells

c) B and T Lymphocytes

d) Natural killer cells

e) None of these choices

d

40

Which of the following cells is the most variable cell in the immune system?

  1. a) Natural killer cell
  2. b) Monocyte
  3. c) RBC
  4. d) Lymphocyte
  5. e) Macrophage

d

41

The primary response will peak how many days after an exposure?

  1. a) 1 day or less
  2. b) 2–7
  3. c) 10–17
  4. d) 20–30
  5. e) Over a month

c

42

Which type of immunity defends against any type of invader?

a) Nonspecific

b) Specific

c) Cell mediated

d) Antibody mediated immunity

e) None of these choices

a

43

The ability of an antigen to react specifically with the antibodies or cells it has provoked is called

a) Specificity

b) Immunogenicity

c) Reactivity

d) Epitopes

e) Immune Response

c

44

Which of the following is a small hormone that can stimulate or inhibit many normal cell functions?

a) Enzyme

b) Kinins

c) Cytokine

d) MHC

e) Leukocyte

c

45
card image

Which structure in the figure is the main duct for the return of lymph to the blood?

  1. a) A
  2. b) F
  3. c) G
  4. d) C
  5. e) H

a

46
card image

Which structure in the figure is a lymphatic vessel?

a) B

b) C

c) D

d) J

e) G

e

47
card image

Which structure in the figure is the cisterna chyli?

  1. a) J
  2. b) C
  3. c) F
  4. d) H
  5. e) A

c

48
card image

Which structure in the figure is the right lymphatic duct?

  1. a) D
  2. b) C
  3. c) F
  4. d) H
  5. e) A

d

49
card image

) Lymph flowing from the afferent lymphatic vessel will travel next to which structure in the figure?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) E

b

50
card image

) Lymph travels to the efferent lymphatic vessel from which structure in the figure?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) E

d

51
card image

Lymph travels from the medullary sinus to which structure in the figure?

a) A

b) B

c) C

d) D

e) E

e

52
card image

Lymph travels to the subcapsular sinus from which structure in the figure?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D
  5. e) E

a

53
card image

What type of cell is located in area B in the figure?

  1. a) B cells
  2. b) dendritic cells
  3. c) macrophages
  4. d) T cells
  5. e) plasma cells

a

54
card image

What types of cells are located in area C in the figure?

  1. a) B cells and follicular dendritic cells
  2. b) B cells and plasma cells
  3. c) macrophages and B cells
  4. d) T cells and dendritic cells
  5. e) plasma cells and macrophages

d

55
card image

Plasma cells are located in which area in the figure?

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D

e) None of these choices

d

56

Which type of adaptive immunity will result from intravenous injection of immunoglobulins?

  1. a) naturally acquired active immunity
  2. b) naturally acquired passive immunity
  3. c) artificially acquired active immunity
  4. d) artificially acquired passive immunity
  5. e) None of these choices

d

57

Which type of adaptive immunity will result from mother-to-baby IgA transfer via breast feeding?

a) naturally acquired active immunity

b) naturally acquired passive immunity

c) artificially acquired active immunity

d) artificially acquired passive immunity

e) None of these choices

b

58

Natural passive immunity is associated with which of the following?

  1. a) Vaccination
  2. b) Exposure to a microbe resulting in antibody formation
  3. c) Receiving booster shots
  4. d) Transfer of IgG from mother to fetus
  5. e) Intravenous injection of antibodies

d

59

Which cells increase the permeability of blood vessels by releasing histamine?

  1. a) neutrophils
  2. b) eosinophils
  3. c) lymphocytes
  4. d) mast cells
  5. e) macrophages

d

60

Which cytokine released by macrophages acts on the hypothalamus to raise the body temperature during fever?

  1. a) Interleukin-1
  2. b) Interleukin-2
  3. c) Interleukin-4
  4. d) Gamma interferon
  5. e) Perforin

a

61

Antigens that induce an allergic reaction are called

  1. a) lymphotoxin
  2. b) perforin
  3. c) granulysin
  4. d) interleukin-1
  5. e) allergen

e

62

Which cell is considered to be the most important cell in the immune system?

  1. a) Cytotoxic T Cells
  2. b) B lymphocytes
  3. c) T Helper cells
  4. d) Eosinophils
  5. e) macrophages

c

63

Which of the following is NOT an effect of aging on the immune system?

  1. a) Increased susceptibility to infections
  2. b) Increased susceptibility to malignancies
  3. c) Decreased response to vaccines
  4. d) Increased response of T cells to antigens

e) Decreased production of antibodies

d

64

Which of the following is an effect of stress on the immune system?

a) Increased activity of T lymphocytes

b) Increased activity of B lymphocytes

c) Activation of the immune system

d) Inhibition of the immune system

e) Increased production of antibodies

d

65

Which cells of the immune system are the primary targets the HIV virus?

a) B cells

b) helper T cells

c) cytotoxic T cells

d) antigen-presenting cells

e) all of these cells are affected by HIV

b

66

Which type of allergic reaction is the most common type?

a) Type I (anaphylactic) reaction

b) Type II (cytotoxic ) reaction

c) Type III (immune-complex) reactions

d) Type IV (cell-mediated) reactions

e) All of these types are common allergic reactions.

a

67

Which of the following organ systems is NOT aided by the MALT (mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue)?

a) Respiratory system

b) Digestive system

c) Muscular system

d) Urinary system

e) Reproductive system

c

68

Which of the following is an incorrect matching of immune system cells and their functions?

a) Macrophage – process and presentation of foreign antigens to T cells

b) Dendritic cell – processes and presents antigen to T and B cells

c) B cells – process and presents antigen to helper T cells

d) Plasma cell – produces and secretes antibodies

e) All of these are correct matching of the cells and their functions

e