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created 5 years ago by herintsoagabriel
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vocabulary development
updated 4 years ago by herintsoagabriel
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1

CATCHY (adj)

Def:
attractive and difficult to forget.
Ex: Betty was so busy that her sister had to use a
catchy body language to call her attention.

2

PILOT (program) (n)

Def: a
person who flies an aircraft.
Ex: All the passengers have already boarded the
plane, but the pilot was caught by a heavy
traffic jam four miles away from the airport.

3

INTRINSIC (adj)

Def:
belonging to a thing by its nature.
Ex: Boby's reactions reflect to his
intrinsic behavior whenever he gets mad.

4

PURIFICATION (n)

Def: the
act of freeing from anything that debases or pollutes.
Ex: The purification
of the metal from the ore is not an easy process to carry out.

5

VOCATIONAL (adj):

Def:

1. of, relating to, or connected with a vocation or occupation.

2. of, relating to, or noting instruction or guidance in an
occupation or profession chosen as a career or in the choice of a career.
Ex:
1. The young boy shows a
vocational talent in playing basketball.
2. This man has never won any case during his
career, he has no vocational lawyer profile.

6

GLITCH (n,v):

Def:

1. a defect or malfunction in a machine or plan.

2. a brief or sudden interruption or surge in voltage in an
electric circuit.

(v) (used with object):

3. to cause a glitch in.
Ex:
1. Rogers' family had to return home immediately because of the
glitch in their car engine.
2. The glitch caused a big loss of half
million dollar to Brian's company
3. The sudden rain glitched my picnic
with my in-law's.

7

CIVIC (adj):

Def:

1. of or relating to a city; municipal: civic problems.

2. of or relating to citizenship; civil: civic duties.

3. of citizens: civic pride.
Ex:
1. The jobless teenagers represent a big
civic delinquent in our City.
2. From their childhood, kids need
civic education to become good citizens.
3. Memorial Day is approaching and all veterans
are not eager to be on that day but also have
civic pride to celebrate the journey.

8

TAILOR (v):

Def:

tailor something to/for somebody/something Special programs
of study are tailored to the needs of specific groups.
Ex:
We identify your needs, and tailor your training accordingly

9

REGRESS (v,n):

Def:

verb (used without object)

1. to move backward; go back.

2. to revert to an earlier or less advanced state or form.

noun

3. the act of going back; return.

4. the right to go back.

5. backward movement or course; retrogression.
Ex:
1. Do not regress,
otherwise you will study with your younger brother.
2. His ECL test regressed
below the required score.
3.His regress on the
test was so noticeable.
4. He has no regress
to return home.
5. The car's regress
is abnormal.

10

HAZE (n,v):

Def:

noun

1. vagueness or obscurity, as of the mind or perception;
confused or vague thoughts, feelings, etc.:

verb (used with or without object), hazed, hazing.

3. to make or become hazy
Ex:
1.The cause of the accident is still in
haze for the policemen.
3. The students hazed
after the long vacation.

11

SURGE (n,v):

Def:

noun

1. a strong rush or sweep; sudden increase.
Ex:
1. Her surge of anger change the atmosphere at
the office.

12

REFUTE (v):

Def:

verb (used with object), refuted, refuting.

1. to prove to be false or erroneous, as an opinion or charge.

2. to prove (a person) to be in error.
Ex:
1. Brad is always refuting
his bad behavior towards the teacher.
2. my little brother
refuted his mother's blaming him.

13

MILESTONE (n):

Def:

1. a stone functioning as a milepost.

2. a significant event or stage in the life, progress,
development, or the like of a person, nation, etc.:
Ex:
1. I didn't notice the
milestone indicating that we are already away
from the capital.
2. Her getting the job of supervisor was a
milestone in her career.

14

HIERARCHY (n):

Def:

noun, plural hierarchies.

1. any system of persons or things ranked one above another.
Ex:
1. The military
hierarchy generates a mutual respect in the base.

15

UNDERPRIVILEGED (adj ):

Def:

denied the enjoyment of the normal privileges or rights of a
society because of low economic and social status.
Ex: the needy in that city are always treated
as underprivileged.

16

RAVE (v, n, adj):

Def:

verb (used without object), raved, raving.

1. to talk wildly, as in delirium.

2. to talk or write with extravagant enthusiasm:

noun

3. an act of raving.

4. an extravagantly enthusiastic appraisal or review of something.
Ex:
1. Being very mad, he was
raving to his secretary.
2. She raved about her
trip to Europe.
3. Her rave surprised
everybody in the office.
4. Her rave trip was unbelievable.

17

BURNOUT(n):

Def:

Also, burn-out. fatigue, frustration, or apathy resulting
from prolonged stress, overwork,or intense activity.
Ex:
1. Her burnout of her job made her
leave the country for few months.

18

CHECKOUT (n,v):

Def:

1-noun

an examination of fitness for performance;

2-verb

not to think of previous program anymore
Ex:
1-The checkout of the new
plane was successful.
2-Students want to check out after
the test.

19

DRAINING (n):

Def:

act of withdrawing, exhausting the resource
Ex: People strive to
draining the treasury.

20

QUIRKY (adj):

Def:

adjective, quirkier, quirkiest.

Having or full of a peculiarity of (action, behavior, or
personality; mannerism)
Ex: The boss is so
quirky that all the personnel talk him back.

21

DISENROLL (v):

Def:

verb (used with object)

to dismiss or cause to become removed from a program of
training, care, etc.
Ex: The academy
dis-enrolled a dozen cadets.

22

ABSENTMINDED (adj)

Def:

so lost in thought that one does not realize what one is
doing, what is happening, etc.; preoccupied to the extent of being
unaware of one's immediate surroundings.
Ex: the students were
absentminded last Friday because of the
memorial day holiday.

23

APATHY (n)

Def:

plural apathies.

absence or suppression of passion, emotion, or excitement.
Ex: Students did not want to show their
apathy of the boring subject of this morning.

24

PRIME (v):

Def:

verb (used with object), primed, priming.

to prepare or make ready for a particular purpose or operation.
Ex:
Bob primes himself to
face the TOEFL test for next week.

25

IMPACTFUL (adj)

Def:

having or manifesting a great impact or effect.
Ex: After the senator's
impactful speech, her bill passed.

26

PROFICIENT (adj)

Def:

well-advanced or competent in any art, science, or subject; skilled:
Ex :A proficient
swimmer may lose during the Olimpia game.

27

TREND (n):

Def:

The general course or prevailing tendency; drift:
Ex:The trends in the
teaching of foreign languages in our school is not sure yet during
the meeting.

28

SPARINGLY (adj)

Def:

scanty; limited.
Ex: We use sparingly
this word in the academic context.

29

PSEUDO- (suff)

Def:

A combining form meaning “false,” “pretended,” “unreal,” used
in the formation of compound words ( pseudo-classic;
pseudo-intellectual): in scientific use, denoting close or deceptive
resemblance to the following element ( pseudo-bulb; pseudo-carp),
and used sometimes in chemical names of isomers ( pseudo-ephedrine).
Ex: He used his
pseudo-name to hide his true identity.

30

DIFFERENTIATE (v):

Def:

verb (used with object), differentiated, differentiating.

to form or mark differently from other such things; distinguish.
Ex: We need to
differentiate the two ways of fixing this problem.

31

COLLABORATE (v)

verb (used without object),

to work, one with another; cooperate, as on a literary work:
EX:They collaborated on a novel.

32

ALLEVIATE (v)

verb (used with object)

to make easier to endure; lessen; mitigate:
Ex: She gave her a shot to alleviate her
sorrow; The teacher didn't assign them to much homework to
alleviate student's pain during the weekend.

33

EMBODY (v)

verb (used with object)

to embrace or comprise
Ex: to course that he gave
embraced all the subjects.

34

LOOPY (adj)

Adjective

Eccentric, crazy, dotty
Ex: the students had a loopy
behavior after the quiz.

35

ROBUST (adj)

Adjective

strong and effective in all or most situations and conditions:
The system requires robust passwords that contain at least one
number or symbol.
Ex: Our goal is to devise
robust statistical methods.

36

AESTHETIC(S) (adj,n)

adjective
1. having a sense of the beautiful; characterized
by a love of beauty.
noun
2. the philosophical theory or set of principles
governing the idea of beauty at a given time and place.
Ex:
1.Her aesthetic speech
convinced the audience.
2. he edits a recently launched blog about aesthetics,

37

APTITUDE (n)

noun

capability; ability; innate or acquired capacity for
something; talent:
Ex: She has a special aptitude
for mathematics.

38

STIGMA (n)

noun, plural stigmata [stig-muh-tuh, stig-mah-tuh,
-mat-uh]

a set of negative and often unfair beliefs that a society or
group of people have about something.
Ex: People have a grudge and
stigma for those people who have no place to live.

39

GRATIFICATION (n)

noun

1. the state of being gratified; great satisfaction. 2.
something that gratifies; source of pleasure or satisfaction.
Ex: The students didn't get any
gratification from their teacher.

40

APPRENTICE (n)

noun

a learner; novice; tyro.
Ex: the new apprentice can't learn
very fast the key points of the lesson.

41

MITIGATE (n)

Verb (used with object)

to lessen in force or intensity, as wrath, grief, harshness,
or pain; moderate.
Ex: the teacher gave in and mitigated the
students' punishment.

42

ASSURE (v)

verb

inform or tell positively
Ex: The teacher assures the students that
they get positive things from the program.

43

POSITIVE/NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT (N)

noun phrase

reward or punishment
Ex: a bonus is a positive reinforcement to
motivate students.

44

INEVITABLE (adj)

adjective

unable to be avoided
Ex: The weekly quiz is an inevitable assignment.

45

EFFICACY (n)

noun

capacity for producing a desired result (effective)
Ex: Her efficacy of writing so fast is amazing.

46

OBSESS (V)

verb

to dominate or preoccupy the thoughts
Ex: Suspicion obsessed it.

47

COGNITIVE (adj)

adjective

concerned with the act of process knowing
Ex: Student cognitive development always
needs teacher's assistance.

48

PREREQUISITE (n)

noun

required beforehand
Ex: a visa is still a prerequisite for
travel in many countries.

49

SUPPLEMENTAL (adj,n)

adjective

1. supplementary, additionnal

noun

2. anything that is supplemental:
Ex:
1. this writing assignment is a supplemental
homework for next week.
2. a supplemental attached to the bill in committee.

50

REPRIEVE (n)

noun

a delay of impending punishment or sentence of something, a
period of relief of something
Ex: postponing the quiz is a reprieve to all
the class.

51

LOOPHOLE (n)

noun

A means of escaping or evasion; opportunity of evading a rule
or a law
Ex: The students found a loophole from the
their teachers instruction no to finish their homework.

52

TRUANCY (n)

noun

not attending school without permission
Ex: Bobby's truancy prevented him to succeed
the test.

53

PERK (n)

noun

a privilege for special group,fringe benefits
Ex: Being late every Monday is Brian's perk.

54

DEVIANT (adj)

Adjective

departing from norm
Ex: his deviant behavior put him at risky situation.

55

QUILL (n)

noun

feather pen
Ex: Nowadays students do not use quill anymore.

56

KARMA (n)

noun

good thing that happens when you do good thing and vice versa.
Ex: American people do not believe in karma.

57

STALL (v)

verb

to stop working
Ex: His wife was stalling the police to allow
him to escape.

58

DUMMY (n)

noun

a stupid person; a representation or copy of something
Ex: He gave a wallet dummy to fool the police officer.

59

DROP OUT (v)

verb

to quit school
Ex: do not drop out otherwise you miss the test.

60

STAY/ BE ON YOUR TOES (v)

verb

to be ready
Ex: be on your toes tomorrow we will leave sooner.

61

SLUGGISH (adj)

adjective

indisposed to action or exertion; lacking in energy; lazy; indolent:
Ex: The government took a sluggish disposition
to curve the poverty phenomenon.

62

DEMYSTIFY (v)

verb (used with object)

to rid of mystery or obscurity; clarify
Ex: It's better to demystify the situation to
avoid misunderstanding.

63

TRAILBLAZER (n)

noun

a pioneer in any field of endeavor:
Ex: Einstein was a trailblazer in science.

64

IMPETUS (n)

noun

a moving force; impulse; stimulus:
Ex:The grant for building the opera house gave
impetus to the city's cultural life.

65

CATALYST (n)

noun

a person or thing that precipitates an event or change
Ex: His imprisonment by the government served as the
catalyst that helped transform social unrest into revolution.

66

VIABLE (adj)

adjective

capable of living
Ex: The atmosphere at my office is not viable anymore.

67

SLOTH (n)

noun

habitual disinclination to exertion; indolence; laziness.
Ex: Bob is a sloth, he never finishes his test
before his friends.

68

ALUMNI (n)

noun,

1. a graduate or former student of a specific school, college,
or university. 2. a former associate, employee, member, or the like
Ex: He invited all the alumni of the library
staff to the party.

69

COHORT (n)

noun

a group of persons sharing a particular statistical or
demographic characteristic
Ex: the cohort of all children born in 1980.

70

CHOPPY (adj)

adjective

uneven in style or quality or characterized by poorly related parts
Ex: The book was a choppy first novel.

71

LULL (v)

verb (used with object)

to put to sleep or rest by soothing means
Ex: Grandma had to lull her son's child by singing.

72

STELLAR (adj)

adjective

1. of or relating to the stars; consisting of stars.

2. like a star, as in brilliance, shape, etc.
Ex: She made a stellar performance.

73

CALL THE SHOTS (exp)

Expression

to have control over an organization, course of action, etc
Ex: Bryan called the shots to gather all his classmates.

74

(PLAY) THE DEVIL'S ADVOCATE (exp)

noun

a person who advocates an opposing or unpopular cause for the
sake of argument or to expose it to a thorough examination.
Ex: Peter played the devil's advocate when he
backed the thief's argument.

75

ASSIMILATE (v)

verb (used with object)

to take in and incorporate as one's own; absorb
Ex: He assimilated many new experiences on his
European trip.

76

THRIVE (v)

verb (used without object)

1. to prosper; be fortunate or successful.

2. to grow or develop vigorously; flourish:
Ex: The students thrive to succeed the last quiz.

77

INGENUITY (n)

noun,

the quality of being cleverly inventive or resourceful; inventiveness:
Ex: Paul was a designer of great ingenuity.

78

STRAIN (v)

verb

to resist forcefully; balk
Ex: The teacher strained at accepting her
students' unpleasant remarks.

79

COZY (n)

noun

discreetly reticent or noncommittal
Ex: The administrators are remaining cozy about
which policy they plan to adopt.

80

ACCOMMODATE (v)

verb

to provide suitably; supply (usually followed by with)
Ex: The officials were accommodated with seats
toward the front of the room.

81

RELENTLESS (adj)

adjective

that does not relent; unyielding severe, strict, or harsh; unrelenting
Ex: The teacher cannot be a students' relentless enemy.

82

DILIGENT (adj)

adjective

constant in effort to accomplish something; attentive and
persistent in doing anything
Ex: Bobby is a diligent student.

83

UBIQUITOUS (adj)

adjective

existing or being everywhere, especially at the same time; omnipresent
Ex: It's hard to get rid of ubiquitous little ants.

84

FAD (n) Vs TREND (n)

noun

a temporary fashion, notion, manner of conduct, etc.,
especially one followed enthusiastically by a group.
Ex: Wearing rings is becoming fad for some men.
noun
the general course or prevailing tendency; drift
Ex: Lingua franca is becoming a trend in the
teaching of foreign languages
; the trend of events.

85

BUMMER (n)

noun, Slang.

a person who bums off others.incompetent
Ex: Greg tries to hide but he is a bummer.

86

ON THE FENCE (exp)

expression

uncommitted; neutral; undecided
Ex: The party leaders are still on the fence.

87

CONDESCENDING (adj)

adjective

showing or implying a usually patronizing descent from dignity
or superiority
Ex: They resented the older neighbors'
condescending cordiality.

88

DISMISSIVE (adj)

adjective

indicating dismissal or rejection; having the purpose or
effect of dismissing, as from one's presence or from consideration
Ex: The Host showed a curt, dismissive gesture.

89

CONCEDE (v)

verb (used with object)

to acknowledge as true, just, or proper; admit
Ex: He finally conceded that she was right.

90

ENSUE (v)

verb (used without object)

to follow in order; come afterward, especially in immediate succession
Ex: As the days ensued, he recovered his strength.

91

LOWLY (adv)

adverb
humbly
Ex: She acted lowly in front of her proud colleague.

92

PROMINENT (adj)

adjective
standing out so as to be seen easily; conspicuous; particularly noticeable:
Ex: Her eyes are her most prominent feature.

93

IRONY (n)

noun
the use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning:
Ex: the irony of her reply, “How nice!” when I said I had to work all weekend.

94

ENDORSE (v)

verb
verb (used with object)
to approve, support, or sustain:
Ex:to endorse a political candidate.

95

SENTIMENT (n)

noun
a mental feeling; emotion
Ex: a sentiment of pity.

96

MILESTONE (n)

noun
1.
a stone functioning as a milepost.
2.
a significant event or stage in the life, progress, development, or the like of a person, nation, etc.:
Ex: Her getting the job of supervisor was a milestone in her career.

97

SUBDUED (adj)

adjective
1.
quiet; inhibited; repressed; controlled:
Ex: After the argument he was much more subdued.
2.
lowered in intensity or strength; reduced in fullness of tone, as a color or voice; muted:
Ex:subdued light; wallpaper in subdued greens.

98

DECISIVE (adj)

adjective
1.
having the power or quality of deciding; putting an end to controversy; crucial or most important:
Ex:Your argument was the decisive one.
2.
characterized by or displaying no or little hesitation; resolute; determined:
Ex;The general was known for his decisive manner.

99

CONTENTIOUS (adj)

adjective
1.
tending to argument or strife; quarrelsome:
Ex:a contentious crew.
2.
causing, involving, or characterized by argument or controversy:
Ex:contentious issues.

100

SCOFF (v)

verb (used without object)
1.
to speak derisively; mock; jeer (often followed by at):
Ex:If you can't do any better, don't scoff. Their efforts toward a peaceful settlement are not to be scoffed at.

101

CONCILIATORY (adj)

adjective
1.
tending to conciliate :
Ex:a conciliatory manner; conciliatory comments.

102

VYING (adj)

adjective
1.
competing; contending:
Ex:All vying swimmers come to the judge's desk.

103

JURISDICTION (n)

noun
1.
the right, power, or authority to administer Ex:justice by hearing and determining controversies.
2.
power; authority; control:
Ex:He has jurisdiction over all American soldiers in the area.

104

NIBBLE AWAY (exp)

expression
to reduce the total amount of something by gradually using small amounts of it

Ex:Beware of hidden costs that can nibble away at your budget.

105

GIVE AWAY THE STORE (verb phrase)

verb phrase

(also give away the keys to the store) To concede too much; be overly generous.
Ex: His opponents complained that Dinkins would give away the store to his friends in labor/ to reinforce the president without giving away the shop/ the Republican Congressional leaders had given them ''the keys to the store'' (1980s+)

106

CRAM (v)

verb

1.to prepare (a person), as for an examination, by having him or her memorize information within a short period of time.
2.to acquire knowledge of (a subject) by so preparing oneself.
Ex:The school has a cramming program for this coming week.

107

PALPABLE (adj)

adjective
1.
readily or plainly seen, heard, perceived, etc.; obvious; evident:
2.
capable of being touched or felt; tangible.
Ex:She has done a palpable lie; palpable absurdity.

108

"BELLS AND WHISTLES" (exp)

plural noun, Informal.
1.
features added to a product; special parts or functions; extras.
Ex: Students consider the teacher's advice as bells and whistles to the homework.

109

FRILLS (n)

noun
1.
a trimming, as a strip of cloth or lace, gathered at one edge and left loose at the other; ruffle.
2.
something resembling such a trimming, as the fringe of hair on the chest of some dogs.
3.
affectation of manner, style, etc.
4.
something superfluous.
Ex: teenagers' thrills amaze people nowadays.

110

DUMBFOUNDED (adj)

verb (used with object)
1.
to make speechless with amazement; astonish.
Ex: The teacher is treated as dumbfounded by the students.

111

IMPLEMENT (v)

verb (used with object)
4.
to fulfill; perform; carry out:
Ex: Once in office, he failed to implement his campaign promises.
5.
to put into effect according to or by means of a definite plan or procedure.

112

ENDOGENOUS (adj)

adjective
1.
proceeding from within; derived internally.
2.
Biology. growing or developing from within; originating within.
Ex: His endogenous reaction is not expected.

113

MACRO vs MICRO (adj)

adjective
1.
very large in scale, scope, or capability.
2.
of or relating to macroeconomics.

adjective
1.
extremely small.
2.
minute in scope or capability.
3.
of or relating to microcomputers.
4.
of or relating to microeconomics.
Ex: the government has to face its macroeconomic problem.

114

CAPITAL (adj)

adjective
principal; highly important:
Ex:This guide offers suggestions of capital interest to travelers.

115

NOTORIETY (n)

noun
1.
the state, quality, or character of being notorious or widely known:
a craze for notoriety.
2.
Chiefly British. a notorious or celebrated person.
Ex: The mayor should use his notoriety to win the election.