Chemistry PCAT

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1

ionic compound with multiple cations

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Binary Ionic Compounds

(nomenclature)

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KCl potassium chloride

3

permanganate

MnO4 1-

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Naming Molecular Compounds

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N2O dinitrogen monoxide

mono = 1

di = 2

tri = 3

tetra = 4

penta = 5

hexa =6

hepta =7

octa = 8

nona = 9

deca = 10

5
  • ionic bond
  • electrons are transferred from one atom to another, forming a cation (positively charged) and an anion (negatively charged).
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  • covalent bond
  • electrons are shared between two atoms. The atoms are held together by the attraction between their nuclei and the shared electrons.
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% yield

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Molarity (M)

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stock solutions

dilution

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pg 155

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electrolytes

Compounds that dissolve by breaking into ions and conduct electricity in solution.

Most soluble salts, acids and bases are electrolytes.

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nonelectrolytes

Compounds such as sugar that do not dissociate into ions when dissolved in water

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precipitation reactions

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reactions in which a solid or precipitate forms when we mix two solutions.

13

Arrhenius acid

  • Substance that produces H+ ions in aqueous solution
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Arrhenius base

  • Substance that produces OH- ions in aqueous solution
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oxidation

loss of electrons

becomes positive

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reduction

gain of electrons.

become negative

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electron configuration

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oxidizing/reducing agents

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19

Boyle's law

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inverse relationship between volume and pressure

P1V1 = constant = P2V2

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Charles's law:

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temperature and volume are proportional

21

Avogadro's law

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the volume and moles of the gas are directly proportional

22

ideal gas law

PV=nRT

R = 0.08206

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density

molar mass / molar volume

24

kinetic molecular theory

particles in constant motion

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dalton's law

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law of conservation of energy

energy can be neither created nor destroyed.

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first law of thermodynamics

The total energy of the universe is constant.

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Enthalpy

energy in a thermodynamic system.

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entropy

disorder or randomness of a system.

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wavelength / amplitude

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electromagnetic spectrum

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Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle

the more accurately you know the position of an electron the less accurately you can know its velocity.

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n quantum number

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l quantum number

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m quantum number

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s quantum number

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Pauli exclusion principle:

no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers.

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Coulomb’s law

the potential energy (E) of two charged particles depends on their charges (q1 and q2) and on their separation (r):

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Hund’s rule

when filling degenerate orbitals, electrons fill them singly first, with parallel spins.

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valence electrons

the outermost principal energy level.

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The most active metals are the alkali metals (group 1A), and the most active nonmetals are the halogens (group 7A).

n/a

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n/a

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Electronegativity

  • Electronegativity generally increases across a period in the periodic table.
  • Electronegativity generally decreases down a column in the periodic table.
  • Fluorine is the most electronegative element.
  • ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a chemical bond
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Electronegativity

  • Electronegativity generally increases across a period in the periodic table.
  • Electronegativity generally decreases down a column in the periodic table.
  • Fluorine is the most electronegative element.
  • ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a chemical bond
  • Elements with lots of protons
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free radicals

Molecules and ions with an odd number of electrons in their Lewis structures

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isotopes

contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

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ion charges

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hydroxide

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cyanide

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sulfate

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phosphate

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nitrate

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carbonate

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bicarbonate

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peroxide

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permanganate

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ammonium

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perchlorate

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chlorate

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chlorite

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hypochlorite

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n quantum number

principle quantum number

energy level

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l quantum number

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angular momentum quantum number

shapes of orbital (s,p,d,f)

l= 0,1,2,3

s=0, p=1, d=2, f=3

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s or ms quantum number

Spin Quantum Number

the spin

-1/2 or +1/2

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permanganate

MnO4 1-

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Diamagnetic

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two electrons in all of its occupied orbitals

repelled by an external magnetic field

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Paramagnetic

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least one orbital with only one electron

attracted by an external magnetic field.

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Elements in a column (called Family or Group) have the same number of valence electrons.

Elements in a row (Period or Series) have their outermost (valence) electrons in the same shell.

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bond strength

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polar molecule

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molecule with a slightly positive side and a slightly negative side

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ion dipole force

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polar / non-polar

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periodic group names

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boiling point based on bonds

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like dissolves like

a polar solvent tends to be a good solvent for other polar substances and ionic compounds; while a non-polar solvent tends to be a good solvent for non-ionic, non-polar substances.

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Colligative Properties

a property whose value depends on the number of solute molecules that are present, not on the nature of the solute molecules.

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molal

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miscible

Two liquids that are mutually soluble

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Mole fraction (x)

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Raoult’s law

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P(solution) = the observed vapor pressure of the solution

X(solvent) = the mole fraction of the solvent

Po(solvent) = the vapor pressure of the pure solvent

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4 colligative properties:

vapor pressure lowering

freezing point depression

boiling point elevation

osmotic pressure

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freezing point depression

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decrease in the freezing point of a solvent due to the presence of solute particles.

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diffusion

molecules tend to distribute themselves evenly in a space.

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Osmosis

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water (solvent) will move to area of higher concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.

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osmotic pressure

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osmotic pressure = atm

87

boiling point elevation

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∆Tb in Celsius degrees (compare to the boiling point of the pure solvent);

• m is the molality of the solution in moles solute per kilogram solvent;

• Kb is the boiling point elevation constant for the solvent.

88

colligative properties effect

the solution with the largest solute concentration that will yield the greatest colligative effect

(note that the greatest colligative effect would be the lowest vapor pressure or the highest BP or the lowest FP or the largest osmotic pressure).

89

acid properties

taste sour

turn litmus red.

leave phenolphthalein (indicator) colorless.

yield pH's less than seven

90

base properties

taste bitter and have a slippery feel

turn litmus blue.

turn phenolphthalein pink.

yield pH's greater than seven.

91

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

proton (H+) donor

92

Bronsted-Lowry Base

proton (H+) acceptor

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Lewis acid

electron pair acceptor

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Lewis base

electron pair donor

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common strong acid

7 STRONG ACIDS

HCl - hydrochloric acid

HBr - hydrobromic acid

HI - hydroiodic acid

HNO3 - nitric acid

HClO3 - chloric acid

HClO4 - perchloric acid

H2SO4 - sulfuric acid

96

common strong bases

LiOH - lithium hydroxide

NaOH - sodium hydroxide

KOH - potassium hydroxide

RbOH - rubidium hydroxide

CsOH - cesium hydroxide

Ca(OH)2 - calcium hydroxide

Sr(OH)2 - strontium hydroxide

Ba(OH)2 - barium hydroxide

97

common weak acid

acetic acid CH3COOH

carbonic acid H2CO3

hydrofluoric acid HF

Phosphoric acid H3PO4

98

weak bases

ammonia NH3

99

conjugate base and acid

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conjugate acid is any base to which a proton has been added

conjugate base is any acid from which a proton has been removed.

Bronsted-Lowry

100

pH

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in molarity (M)

101

pOH

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102
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14

103

log

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104

log(6) = .778

10 .778 = 6

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-log(.001)

log(1 / .001)

106

Kw

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Kw = 1 * 10-14

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n/a

108

oxidation number rules

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  1. F is always -1
  2. The IA elements (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) are always +1.
  3. The IIA elements (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) are always +2.
  4. Al is always +3.
  5. H is +1 when bonded to a non-metal.
  6. H is -1 when bonded to a metal.
  7. 0 is usually -2
  8. Cl, Br, and I are usually -1.