Linguistics final

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1

Phonology

The sound patterns allowed in a language

2

Syntax

The way a language builds sentences

3

Semantics

The way a language assigns meanings of words and sentences

4

Morphology

the way a language creates new words, putting small meaningful units (morphemes) together

5

Pragmatics

the way speakers actually use language, how language in context is understood, theory of speech acts

6

lexicon

the dictionary or vocabulary of a language

7

Descriptive grammar

The actual way people use language, what linguists are interested , describes the grammar of different languages and dialects

8

prescirptive

rules your teacher gives you for how you ought to use language, linguistics generally no interested

9

How people perform their identity

appearance, aesthetics, behavior, symbols, and grammar

10

Living languages vs moribund languages

all living languages change. Only moribund, dead languages are static and have no native speakers

11

double negation

is not considered non-standard in many languages, french russion, spanish, etc. there is nothing wrong with it but it is usually associated w.stigmatized groups in english

12

Language attitudes

reflect society’s hierarchical structure. Attitudes about different languages really reflect how we feel about that speaker and their positioning society

13

Standardization

an attempt to stop change, part of language idealology

14

Reasons for linguistic change

Internal: ease of articulation, analogy, reanalysis

external: social factors

15

English is a member of the ______ family

germanic

16

All modern languages started as __________

Regional dialects

17

the word “like"

used as a quotative

“she was like..."

or focuser

18

r-lessness_

dropped at the end of the word: Floor - floo

dropped before a consonant: fourth- fouth

northern cities chain shift

r-lessness is prestigious in boston brahmin

Current NYC relishes is stigmatized

19

Characteristics used in ranking

wealth, income, occupation, educational attainment, race, ethnic background, age, gender, sexual orientation

20

code switching

moving between two languages/dialects/accents in a single discourse

21

Accents

how the differ from other accents, individual traits are only important when they contrast with other languages, phonetic and phonological variation

22

Dialects

invovle phonetic, phonological, vocabulary, and syntax variation

23

language idealogy

the promotion of the needs and interests of a dominant group or class at the expense of marginalized groups, by means of disinformation misrepresentation of those marginalized groups

24

palatalization

“t/d” become “ch/j” before y/i

won’t you - woncha

would you - wudja

informal language

25

* steps of language subordination

1. language is mystified

2. authority is claimed

3. misinformation is generated

4. non mainstream language is trivialized

5. conformers are held up as positive examples

6. non-conformers are vilified or marginalized

7. explicit promises made

8. threats are made

26

Northern cities chain shift

lunch to launch

27

modal tag questions

request information or confirmations

“you were missing last week weren’t you?

Men use more modal tag questions than women

28

Affective tag questions

indicate concern

its a nice day out, isn’t it?

used by women

29

Uptalk

rising intonation at the end of a phrase or sentence

believed to be heavily used in women language, stereotype associated in uncertainity, insecurity, shallowness, lack of intelligence

30

Hypercorrect grammar

consistent use of standard verb forms

used by women and upper middle class

31

queer theory

gender and sexual identity are treated as separate but linked catagories

32

Until recently much research on gay language focused on

lexical differences, vocal and its context

33

Reclaimed epithet

attempts to take words used negativley and reclaim them for positive in-group usage:

faggot as epithet for gay men

dyke as epithet for lesbian

34

Chiquitafication

term used for the process that has diminished the complexity of the languages and the cultures of over 22 Emilio latinos living in the US

describes public policies and with homogenize latino cultures and languages into a tidy and digestible package for the nation

35

maintenance

keeping the native language after immigrating

36

shift

switch to a new languages after immigrating

37

First generation

immigrants may retain native language, learn some english

38

second genration

children learn native language at home, english at school

39

their generation

most geranlly do not learn native language at home, may have passive knowledge of it , may understand but do not speak native language

40

[ch] and [sh]

dialect and use

chicano english: used interchangeably: she - chi, chairs - shares

41

Realization of “the” as t/d

dialect and use

Chicano english: something - someting

then - den

42

final consonant cluster reduction

dialect and use

chicano english , AAVE, Cajun english

ask - ass

start - star

best - bes

sometimes - sometim

43

double negatives

dialect and usage

I don have no money

chicano english

adolescent english

44

would in if clause

dialect and use

tejano english

if she would help me, I would be finished by now

45

ebonics

Made by black scholars. linguistic and paralinguistic features whih on a concentric continuum represent the communicative competence of the western african carribean and US slave descendants of african origin. represents the attempt for a african americans to decide self referential terms, rather than whites

46

Style shifting

shifting between to dialects of the same language

47

devoicing voiced stops, word final

AAVE

cab - cap

hand - han

talked - talk

48

final consonant reduction

dialect and use

aave- test - tes

list - lis

49

post vocalic /r/ sound deleted

dialect and use

AAVE

store - sto

fourth - foth

50

monophthongization

dialect and use

southern english and AAVE

//ai/ - /a/

I think Ive got something in my eye - ah think ah’ve got something in ma ah.

51

copula deletion/ absence of copula

dialect and use

AAVE

people’re going to see you

people gone’ see you

he’s tall - he tall

the coffee is cold - the coffee cold

52

/th/ realized as t/d initially & finally

AAVE and southern english

them - dem

bath - baf

53

merger of vowels

AAVE

pin - pen

54

adjecent consonants transposed

dialect and use

AAVE: aks for ask

waps for wasp

55

habitual/invariant “be”

dialect and use

AAVE: he be working everyday

56

unstressed been

AAVE: used for has/ have been

he has been sick - he been sick

she has been running - she been running

57

Stressed BIN

dialect and use

marks remote past

AAVE: She BIN married - she has been married for a long time

he ate it a long time ago- he BIN ate it

58

use of intensified contunuative

AAVE:

actions occur consistently/persistantly

“steady"

her mouth is steady running

he be steady making that money

59

reduplication of a past tense/participle

AAVE:

liked - likeded

light-skinned - lightskinded

he been actin all light skinded when he tex me

60

unmarked third person singular

AAVE: He walks - he walk

he doesnt sing - he don’t sing

he works at ford - he work at ford

61

double modals

dialect and use

AAVE and Southern english

may can, might can, might could

62

use of liketa

AAVE and southern english

id liketa see that agin - id like to see that again

63

y’all usage

AAVE and southern english

64

emphetic done

AAVE and Southeern english

he’s already done it - he done did it

65

ritual insults

dialect and use

AAVE:

the dozens- series of insults, makes use of set of patterns, systematics, may use complex clauses systematically,

- your mothers a lizard

you’re mother is so skinny she iceskates on a razor blade

66

bidialectism

some children growing up are exposed to both AAE and standard English with AAE more comely the home language

67

Oakland resolution

1996 resolution:

Declared ebonics as its own language and for it to be the primary language os african american in its schools

declaration of linguistic independence

oakland school board resolution: african american students utilized a language described as ebonics or “ african language system which are genetically based and not a dialect of English

1997 reoslution: genetically based is changed to, have origins in west and niger congo languages and are not merely dialects of english. new resolution gave emphasis on learning english and not to teach ebonics, but employ it

68

self reference terms

terms expressing identity are fluid and temporally-based , groups may prefer to define themselves rather than be assigned names by outsiders.

tohono O’ogham meaning mountain people, versus Papago meaning bean eater and given by outsiders

69

10 steps of moral panic

1. something unsettling or disturbing or frightening happens and the media focuses on the event and there is viewer interest

2. hostility and negetivity are expressed openly and the media intesifies focus and discourse on the offending person or thing3

3. a person or group at the center of a growing moral panic is demonized and its defender or representatives become folk devils

4. individuals or institutions step forward to serve as moral entrepreneurs, evidence to the contrary is ignored or buried.

5. the media intensifies and press aggressively looks for story tied to the triggering event

6. the message mores beyond its original shpere at an ever increasing speed by the media and sometimes people with commercial interest in the outcome

7. definers are identified. these are people who are identified primarily by their credentials and claim to authority.

8 criticism acccelerates to mockery

9. consesus is reached. widespread acceptance and acknowledgement that the group or event in question poses a very real threat to society

10. reactions and suggested remedies are disproportionate with longterm and destructive results. actual resolutions may lead to change in law

70

english only laws

making english official US language

71

snap bean

lexical term used by texas english and lower southern englihs

72

Intrusive /r/

texas english - washington - warshington

73

fixin to

southern english, texas english, non standard modal

74

grammaticalization

a language process wherein a lexical item is transformed int a grammatical morpheme

the shift for fixing to and like to become auxiliary words

75

loss of /y/ after alveolar consonants

dialect and use

word appear with a /y/ before the /u/:

southern and texas english

tune - tyune

new - nyew

76

vowel laxing

dialect and use

southern english: school - schul

pool - pull

77

lower southern lang

r-lessness

forty - foty

lexical item- snap bean

78

features of upper south dialect

r-fullness - intrusive r - warshintong

diphthong changes, /ai/ to /a/

79

Open network

travel and work outside the community and are more lin contact with anglophones, more of a rejection of core traditional cajun values

80

closed networks

stay at home, child car, more contacts with in cajun community, more likely to keep cajun linguistic norms and values

81

louisiana Standard french

established by what descendants of original french settlers

82

cajun french:

describes the variety of french spoken in South lousiana(encompasses french from all three varieties)

83

Acadians

acadians where expelled from acadia, canada and relocated to southern louisiana, they formed the acadian triangle, established cajun french because they spoke less prestigious french dialect,farmers and fishermen refused to swear loyalty to british in french and indian war, so the were forced out of canada, acadians became cajuns

84

Louisiana English only laws

french was heavily used util the start of the civil war, then french was banned in schools, and laws were passed in 1921 that established english as the official language in louisiana, cajun french and LFC were illegal

85

fais-do-do

dance, to make sleep, the adults would dance on would side of the room, kids sleep on the other

86

cajun french

was once prevalent in South louisiana, loses final consonant clusters and influenced by american english sounds

87

semantic shift

taking terms already in existence and changing their meaningcajuns adopted “char: which referred originally to horse drawn carts to mean automobiles. Free borrowed the word voider, originally meaning carriages. borrowed chotaw as chaoui for raccoon,

88

Cajun english word order

subject isn’t moved in questions

when dat was? how she writes dat? what it means?

89

Plural [s] not pronounced

dialect and use

Cajun english

morphology: i have a lot of sporting good__, 62 stich__

90

Unaspirated [p.t.k.]

dialect and use

standard english exhale air when pronouncing these stop consonant /p/,/t/, and /k/ in stressed syllable position. cajun speakers do not.

pat -> bat w shortened vowel sound

source is that french do not aspirate voiceless stops

91

faire

Cajun English

french use “make” for “do"

To make groceries, I made $200 worth of damage

92

Back for Again

Cajun English

she remarried back, say that back

93

Frech endearments

“cher” short for “cherie”

94

reduplication

Cajun english

the coffee was hot hot

95

creole continuum

Most spoken cajun english:

old>Young>middle

Men>Women

96

mass media

includes broadcast, print, outdoor, billboards, signs, public speaking, digital media, internet

97

voice of authority

peter jennings abc anchor on world news known as voice of authority, spoke in standard unaccented english, was a high school drop out

98

NPR: national public Radio

considered standard bearer for standard american english

99

propoganda

the planned systematic distribution of disinformation to achieve a particular end, purpose is to sway the public opinion

100

language propoganda

both the vehicle of propaganda and the object

101

idealogical square

the foregrounding or background of certain parts of an event

-emphesize our good properties/actions

-emphesize their bad prperties and actions

-mitigate our bad properties or actions

-mitigate their good properties or actions

102

framing

misinformation by framing actual information falsely, comprises a set of concepts and theoretical perspectives on how an individuals groups and societies organize, percieve and communicate about reality, social construction of a social phenomenon, process of selective influence over the individuals perception of the meanings attributed to words or phrases

103

spin

swaying the public opinion by effectively and consistently using a set of rhetorical strategies, or by frame of references so that through cultural narratives, metaphors, and frames, we understand and express our ideals

104

satire

makes fun on society

105

iconicity

reflects properties of external world, iconicity in spoken language: onamtopoeia, iconicity in signed language: some signs understood by non signers, most signs in ASL are not iconic

106

Gesture vs signs

gesturers are used w speech but are not the same as signs because they are not systematic, express a small number of concepts, very limited set of hand gestures

107

SVO

Subject verb object order

used by ASL

108

indigenous

existing growing or produced naturally in a region or country, belonging to as a native

native american, hawaiin language, ASL, and creole languages are indigenou

109

polysynthetic

words amade of a large number of morphemes, lexical - meaningful contentful like a verb or noun. grammatical- more functional, like case or plural

110

polysynthetic languages

languages in which words are composed of many morphemes

111

morpheme

word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone

112

SVO v SOV v flexible

native language word order

113

exclusive vs inclusive

exclusive: hearer is not included

inclusive: hearer is included

114

glottalized consonants:

ejectives: ts in pizza

115

Cherokee

iroqoian language, polysynthetic, somewhat flexible word order, tone and vowel length

116

navajo

largest tribe in the US.

rejected US control after mexican war

117

trail of tears:

navajos forced to relocate to Fort Sumner, NM by walking and many died from diseas

118

4th person

navajo

when a character (3rd person) is being discussed, a mother character (fourth person) is distinguished as a separate person

used for co reference for 3rd person or disjoint reference bt two pronouns

5 other uses:

quotative/reportative, impersonals, express one’s own disires ( viewed as impolite if using the 1st person), narratives only allow coreference with nouns

119

Co refer

Navajo

she1 said that sh1 will be home soon

120

disjoint reference

refer to different people

she1 said that she2 will be home soon

121

Burden of proof

1. establishment of identifiable national orgin

2. proof of application for a job for which he or she was qualified, and for which the employer was seeking aplicants

3. that he or she was rejected in spite of adequate qualifications

4. that after such rejection, the job remaimed open and the employer continued to seek applicants with the plaintiffs qualifications

company must then defend their decision

122

Title VII

permits an employer to reject qualified applicants of a particular national origin as long as he hires more assimilated applicants of the same origin instead

123

Poskocil Case

school district based their decision to not hire poskocil based on student evaluations

judgement favored the school district

she taught spanish

124

Galdamez v. John Potter

2004: post master was physically threatened because of her accent

125

dercach vs indiana department of Hwy

1987: people couldn’t understand dercach’s in Indian, offered no other explanation other than they couldn’t understand him

126

Rodriguez vs City of Hialeah

1989: told him to speak english like queens, newjersy. not little havana. the Sgt. testified that he could not recall ever talking to him.

127

Xieng vs. Peoples National Bank of Washington

1993: he was not promoted because he could not speak “american"

128

Fragente vs honolulu

1989: they testified that he was not hired because of his accent, and courts did not side with him because of the way he commented. the county felt that the applicants selected would deb better able to work in the offices because of their comunication skills

129

Dialects of chinese

7 major dialect families:

Mandarin, Cantonese, Wu, Xiang, Gan, Hakka, and Min

all use the same writing system

130

Tone

different tones have different meanings

131

Japanese Word order

Order subject verb object

SVO

132

Kinship terms

Vietnamese pronouns and kinship terms and pronouns point out the respect, deference, camaderie, and various social relationships. Are descriptive and expressive.

133

honorifics

Korean language: different ways of saying a word to reflect the the level of respect to the listener

Janapese, Korean, and have expressive honorifics

Vietnamese do not have expressive honorifics, but they have semantic meaning

134

Retroflex

dialect and use

Asian Indian English:

eight -> eyt

tin -> tIn

faith -> feIt

135

Austro-Asiatic language

Vietnamese is from this language family

136

Three dialects of Vietnamese

Northern (Bac)

Central (Hue, Trung)

Southern (Nam)

137

Languages are affected by _______ and _______ pressures

internal and extrenal

languages and dialects in isolation will still change over time, and continue to develop, though separately.

When languages and dialects come in contact with each other they affect each other

138

Factors contributing to why English isn’t the only language spoken in th eUS

Region/geography

gender, sex and sexuality

ethnicity and community identy

socioeconomic status

139

the process of language subordination targets...

varieties of those which are emblematic of differences in race, ethnicity, homeland, or other social allegiances which have been found to be less than good enough

140

deaf vs Deaf

deaf: the condition of partially or completely lacking in the sense of hearing to the extent that one cannot understand speech for everyday communication purposes.

Deaf: refers to embracing the cultural norms, beliefs, and values of the Deaf Community.