Vocan

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created 6 years ago by julialrohde
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updated 6 years ago by julialrohde
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1

An argument filed with a court by an individual or group who is not a party to a lawsuit

amicus curiae

2

Federal money given to the states with few restrictions about how it should be spent

block grants

3

when congressional staff help a constituent solve a problem

casework

4

money given by the federal government to the states to be used for a narrowly defined purpose

categorical grant

5

Face-to- face meetings of party members at the local or state level to determine their party’s candidate for office

caucus

6

A vote by party members to determine their party’s candidate for office, which is restricted to those who are registered to the party.

closed primary

7

A system where the federal government and the states work together in funding and administering programs

cooperative federalism

8

An election where new coalitions of voters have formed, beginning a new party era

critical election

9

When voters no longer identify with one of the two major parties and become independent voters

dealignment

10

The statistical characteristics of a population

demographic

11

A process by which the national government gives more power and authority to the states

devolution

12

Promises made by the government to an identifiable group of people who are guaranteed benefits

entitlements

13

A presidential directive

executive order

14

Powers that are given to an institution of government directly in the Constitution, such as Congress’s power to tax

expressed powers

15

A system of government where power is shared between the national government and the states in which the states have some protected powers

federalism

16

The use of spending by the national government through the grant process to influence state policies

fiscal federalism

17

Impacting the economy through taxing and spending in the budget

fiscal policy

18

Drawing congressional district boundaries to benefit a group, usually a political party

gerrymandering

19

Ordinary citizens raising awareness for a cause and pushing the government to adopt a particular policy

grassroots lobbying

20

The tendency of the media to focus on which candidate is ahead in the polls rather than focusing on the issues

race journalism

21

Powers that are necessary to carry out an expressed power in the Constitution, like the power of Congress to
establish a bank

implied powers

22

an officeholder who is running for reelection

incumbent

23

money spent of ads that are not sponsored by a candidate or party

independent expenditure

24

powers that are naturally derived from the duties of a specific government position, such as Thomas Jefferson's power to purchase Louisanna Territory

inherent powers

25

An organization that advocates for policies through lobbying, electioneering, grassroots mobilization and protesting

interest group

26

A relationship between interest groups, agencies, and congressional committees in a certain policy
area

issue network (iron triangle)

27

a philosophy that the Supreme Court should make bold new policy

judicial activism

28

the power of supreme court to overturn a law or executive action as unconstitutional

judicial review

29

The time during which a president who has lost an election or has ended a second term is still in office before the

new president serves.

lame duck period

30

A lawsuit

litigation

31

Efforts by an interest group or individual to contact a member of Congress and advocate for a particular policy

lobbying

32

When members of Congress trade votes for favors in order to get the bills they support passed

logrolling

33

Expenditures that the federal government is obligated to make, like entitlements and interest on the national
debt

mandatory spending

34

An election in which voters select members of Congress but not the president

midterm election

35

Influencing the economy though federal interest rates, reserve rates, and the amount of money in circulation

monetary policy

36

A vote by 60 senators to end a filibuster.

motion for cloture

37

An election to determine a party’s candidate for office in which that party’s members and unaffiliated voters may

vote

open primary

38

Making judicial decisions by considering what the founding fathers meant in the Constitution

original intent

39

Congressional committee hearings held to determine how well an agency is doing its job

oversight

40

An organization that is registered with the Federal Election Committee and donates money to a candidate or campaign

PAC

41

When political parties move farther away from each other ideologically and also move away from the center

party polarization

42

A theory of government in which many groups compete for policy

pluralism

43

When a president does not sign a bill within 10 days when Congress is not in session

pocket veto

44

Problems that have the attention of the government and the public

policy agenda

45

The shared political values of a society

political culture

46

An individual’s belief that his or her political participation can make a difference.

political efficacy

47

A group of individuals who organize to run candidates for office

political party

48

The process by which an individual develops his or her political beliefs

political socilization

49

A provision in a bill that benefits a specific congressional constituency

pork barrel spending

50

A provision in a bill that benefits a specific congressional constituency

realignment

51

Changing congressional district boundaries based on a new census

redistricting

52

The process by which the Bill of Rights has been applied to the states on a case-by- case basis through the Fourteenth Amendment

selective incorporation

53

The electoral system used to select members of the House of Representatives

single-member district

54

when a court follows precedent by letting a previous decision stand

stare decisis

55

right to vote

suffrage

56

An organization, which need not disclose its members, that can spend a vast and unlimited amount of money on a
political campaign

super PAC

57

Expenditures that the federal government cannot realistically reduce because they are required by law

uncontrollable spending

58

a federal requirement that forces the states to spend their own money

unfunded mandate

59

the president's personal assistants and advisors

white house staff

60

a document issued by the supreme court if it has agreed to hear a case

write of certiorari

61

a method whereby a poor person can have his or her case heard in a federal court without charge

in forma pauperis

62

a brief, unsigned court opinion

per curiam opinion