Sports Nutrition Final

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1

American football CHO needs and %kcal

6-10g/kg

55-65%

2

American football lipid needs %

20-35%

3

American football protein needs and %

1.2-1.6g/kg

15-20%

4

To increase muscle mass in american football players, they should take __-__g/kg protein

2.5-3

5

American football micronutrient needs (7)

Vitamins A, E, C

Iron

Calcium

Zinc

Vitamin D

6

American football players produce __-__L sweat during training

1.5-2

7

American football players recommend ____L water/day

3.7

8

4 Unique needs of american football players

Weight monitoring

Refueling

Acclimatization

Meal planning/event logistic

9

How long does acclimatize for football players?

5 days

10

Strength and power CHO needs

6-10g/kg

11

strength and power protein needs and %

1.4-1.7g/kg

16-20%

12

strength and power lipid needs %

25-35%

13

to lose weight, speed and power athletes should take __-___% lipids

20-25

14

Adverse effects of caffeine

anxiety, jitteriness, rapid HB, GI disress, insomnia

15

Micronutrient needs for strength and power athletes (9)

antioxidants A, E, C

Chromium

Boron

Magnesium

Zinc

Calcium

Iron

16

Dehydration of __-__% body weight begins to compromise function

1-2

17

What is one speical consideration for strength and power athletes?

joint health

18

What happens to the amount of calories in a masters athlete? Why?

decreases due to loss of muscle mass and metabolic rate

19

What is the age range for masters athletes by Fink and IDEA?

Fink - 40-50

IDEA - 30+

20

masters athlete CHO needs %

45-65

21

What does HRT do for women (3)

Decrease menopause symptoms

Prevent osteoporosis

Help weight loss

22

Higher load masters athletes should take in __-__g/gkg/day CHO

7-10

23

Protein needs for masters athletes

1-1.3g/kg

24

Lipid needs for masters athletes %

20-30

25

What micronutrients decrease for masters athletes? (2)

chromium and iron

26

What micronutrients increase for masters athletes (3)

Calcium

Vitamin D

Magnesium

27

Masters athletes are MORE/LESS susceptible to dehydration

more

28

6 special considerations of masters athletes

Hormonal changes

Tools to combat aging (HRT and antioxidants)

Medical considerations (diabetes)

Decreased VO2max

Medications

Lifestyle

29

Hormonal changes in master athlete women (3)

estrogen and progesterone drop

DHEA drop

Testosterone still produced

30

Hormonal changes in masters athlete men

decrease testosterone

31

HRT for women (3)

Decrease menopause symptoms

Prevent osteoporosis

Help weight loss

32

Antioxidants for masters athletes reduce risk of (3)

Alzheimers

heart disease

cancer

33

VO2max of masters athletes INCREASE/DECREASE

decrease

34

Lifestyle of masters athletes (3)

more social eating/drinking habits

More relaxed body image and deting

Daily alcohol consumption

35

Puberty considerations for adolescent athletes (4)

Sexual maturation

Increase weight and height

Accumulation of skeletal mass

Changes in body composition

36

Supplements performed as claimed (4)

Creatine

Caffeine

Sports drinks/gels/bars

Protein and AA supplements

37

What's the most widely used supplement?

creatine

38

Claim of creatine

Build muscle and enhance recovery

39

Adverse affects of creatine

weight (water) gain

Cramping

nausea

diarrhea

40

Claims of caffeine

decrease perception of work/effort

41

When can caffeine be ergolytic?

excess or comination of stimulants, alcohol or novice users

42

Adverse effects of creatine

anxiety, jitteriness, rapid HB, GI disress, insomnia

43

Supplements that may perform as claimed but insufficient evidence (4)

glutamine

Beta-hydroxymethylbutyrate

Colostrum

Ribose

44

Claim of glutamine

AA substrate for protein synthesis leads to increase lean muscle mass

45

4 ergogenic benegits of glutamine

Increase strength and lean mass

Prolong exercise and foster recovery

Improve immune function

Prevent athlete from overtraining

46

Claim of beta-hydroxymethylbutyrate

strength gains and lean muscle mass

47

Claim of colustrum

increase uptake of glucose and transport to muscles to increase strenght and endurance, burn body fat, bood immune, shorten recovery, accelerate healing of injuries

48

Claim of ribose

replace/reproduce ATP at higher rates

49

Supplements that don't perform as claimed (5)

Amino acids

Carnitine

CLA

MCTG

Pyruvate

50

Claim of AA

enhance nitrogen retention, increase muscle mass, prevent protein catabolism, promote glycogen resynthesis, prevent sports anemia

51

Claim of carnitine

incrase VO2max, decrase lactate production, decrease fat mass, increase muscle mass

52

Claim of CLA

reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses

53

Claims of MCTG

increase fat oxidation and spare glycogen

54

claim of pyruvate

enhance work output and weight loss

55

Illegal/banned by WADA (6)

Anabolic, androgenic steroids

ephedra

HGH

Peptide hormones and growth factors

Beta-2 agonist

Hormone and metabolic modulators

56

EPO effects performance (4)

elevate hematocrit and hemoglobin

Enhance oxygen carrying capacity

Increase aerobic capacity

Increase time to exhaustion

57

When are diuretics typically used?

individuals with hypertension

58

What can diuretics be used for?

weight loss

59

Affters of diuretics in masters athletes (4)

dehydration

negative influence on CV function

Increased demand of heart

Rate of force development decreases

60

what is TUE?

therapeutic use exemptions

61

2 common TUE

diuretics

beta blockers

62

Iron Supplementation Improves EnergeticEfficiency in Iron-Depleted Female Rowers THEORETICAL BASIS

  • Active females are at higher risk for IDNA due to:
    • Poor dietary intake, hemolysis, increased losses due to GI tract, hematuria, sweat, and altered intestinal absorption.
63

Iron Supplementation Improves EnergeticEfficiency in Iron-Depleted Female Rowers PURPOSE (3)

  • Examine effects of low-dose Fe supplementation on collegiate rowers’ Fe status
  • Examine effects of Fe supplementation on metabolic adaptations to rowing.
  • Relation of change in Fe status indicators and changes in endurance capacity and energy metabolism during TT after 6 weeks of training.
64

Iron Supplementation Improves EnergeticEfficiency in Iron-Depleted Female Rowers HYPOTHESIS (2)

  • Fe supplementation prevent training declines
  • Fe supplemented rowers would improve Fe status (improved performance)
65

Iron Supplementation Improves EnergeticEfficiency in Iron-Depleted Female Rowers MAJOR FINDINGS (5)

Greater improvement in Fe stores

Lower Fe status benefited most

Slow lactate response

IDNA increase rowers energy cost and exertion to perform same relative workout

Enhanced adaptation to training

66

The Effects of Season-Long Vitamin D Supplementation on Collegiate Swimmers and Divers THEORETICAL BASIS (4)

Vitamin D deficiency worldwide epidemic

Insufficiency associated with adverse nonskeletal outcomes

High prevalence in athetles and seasonal fluctuations, more primarily indoors

Higher D associated with improved health, body comp and performance

67

The Effects of Season-Long Vitamin D Supplementation on Collegiate Swimmers and Divers PURPOSE (2)

  • How vitamin D concentrations respond to 6 months of supplementation in collegiate swimmers and divers.
  • Determine how changes in vitamin D related to changes in body composition, markers of inflammation, and frequency of illness and injury.
68

The Effects of Season-Long Vitamin D Supplementation on Collegiate Swimmers and Divers HYPOTHESIS

  • Increasing vitamin D concentrations would positively correlate with improved bone formation and inversely associated with markers of inflammation.
69

The Effects of Season-Long Vitamin D Supplementation on Collegiate Swimmers and Divers MAJOR FINDINGS (3)

  • Increasing vitamin D didn’t correlate with total body BMD, proximal dual femur or lumbar spine, or markers of inflammation.
  • Increased vitamin D concentrations
  • Majority injuries oxxured December to March
70

Effect of Drink Carbohydrate Content on Postexercise Gastric Emptying, Rehydration, and the Calculation of Net Fluid Balance THEORETICAL BASIS (4)

  • Majority of athletes found dehydrated at completion of exercise.
  • Time available for fluid intake is small and the ability to restore fluid is desired.
  • Drink volume is vital to fluid restoration but retention is determined by the contents of the fluid.
  • Manipulation of sodium, CHO and PRO concentration effect rehydration
  • 4 Processes of rehydration:
71

3 Processes of rehydration

  • Gastric Emptying – increase CHO decreases gastric emptying rate; dependent on osmolality.
  • Intestinal absorption – dependent on rate of gastric emptying; governed by osmotic gradients and osmolality
  • Fluid retention
72

Effect of Drink Carbohydrate Content on Postexercise Gastric Emptying, Rehydration, and the Calculation of Net Fluid Balance PURPOSE

  • Investigate effect of hypotonic (2%) and hypertonic (10%) glucose-electrolyte drinks on gastric emptying and drink retention after exercise-induced dehydration.
73

Effect of Drink Carbohydrate Content on Postexercise Gastric Emptying, Rehydration, and the Calculation of Net Fluid Balance HYPOTHESIS

  • Gastric emptying may be the catalyst to whether hypotonic or hypertonic glucose-electrolyte drinks will be retained after exercise-induced dehydration.
74

Effect of Drink Carbohydrate Content on Postexercise Gastric Emptying, Rehydration, and the Calculation of Net Fluid Balance MAJOR FINDINGS (6)

  • Hypertonic drink emptied from stomach at slower rate, slower restoration of plasma volume, and reduced urine output.
    • Concentration in blood increases, ADH increases, increase reabsorption
  • Increased electrolytes retain more fluid.
  • Total urine output of hypotonic drink was greater than hypertonic.
  • Hypertonic retained or maintained better fluid balance
  • Hypotonic drink increased plasma volume, hypertonic decreased plasma volume.
  • Hypertonic had better balance than the hypotonic.
75

Reasons why athletes want to lose weight (4)

  • Keep a high power/weight ratio
    • Extra weight is detrimental to performance
  • Reduce energy expenditure while competing
  • Compete at lower weight class
  • Appearance
76

Why is weight loss not always beneficial to athletes (5)

  • Reduction in body weight may also include reduction in muscle mass
  • Reduction in glycogen stores
  • Associated with chronic fatigue and increased risk of injury
  • Lead to eating disorders
  • Evidence of decreased muscular strength and work performance
77

What 5 things are associated with decreased muscular strength and work performance during weight loss?

  • Decreased blood volume
  • Impaired CV function
  • Decreased ability to thermoregulation
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Decrease liver and glycogen stores
78

BMI of NFL players

29.4 +/- 0.6

79

% fat ranges of NFL football players

15.2-25.4

80

How to compute Sweat rate

[(Body weight before - Body weight after) + (volume of water consumed - urine volume)] / Exercise time

81

Equation for desired LBM

LBM/1-desired %BF

82

Target BW(kg) = ?

Target BMI X HT (m2)

83

7 Functions of water

  • Solvent – constituent within cells
  • Transports dissolved substances to nearly every location in the body.
  • Protection – shock absorption, lubrication
  • Osmotic pressure regulation
  • Major component of blood
  • Senses – hearing and eyes
  • Thermoregulation
84

Daily recommended beverages

water, 100% juices, milk, etc.

85

Recommended beverages 2-4 hours prior and how much

13-20oz

water, spotrs drink, milk, juices

86

Recommended beverages 10-20 minutes prior and how much

7-10oz

Water or sports drink

87

Recommended beverages during adn how much

7-10oz every 10-20 minutes

Sports drink or water

88

Recommended beverages after and how much

16-24oz per lb lost

Water, sports drink, juices, milk, or other beverages

89

1 lb body weight lost = __-__oz fluid intake

16-24oz

90

3 methods of assessing hydration status of athletes

Urine color

Measure urine osmolality

Measure body weight early in the morning after voiding

91

Dehydrated urine osmolality

>900mOsmol/kg

92

Well hydrated urine osmolality

100-300 mOsmol/kg

93

Recommended fluid intake for men

3.7L

94

Recommended fluid intake for women

2.7L

95

1lb reduction in body weight = ___mL lost

450

96

Reasons for electrolytes in sports drinks (5)

  • Increase palatability
  • Maintain thirst and promote drinking
  • Prevent hyponatremia
  • Increase rate of water uptake
  • Increase retention of fluid
97

What are electrolytes?

a substance which conducts electricity in solution

98

4 functions of sodium

  • Maintains normal body fluid balance
  • Pressure regulation
  • Nerve conduction
  • Acids base balance
99

________ is the principal electrolyte in ECF

sodium

100

__________ is the principal electrolte in ICF

potassium

101

5 functions of potassium

  • Regulate water balance
  • Nerve conduction
  • Transport glucose into muscle cell
  • Storage of glycogen
  • Production of high energy compounds
102

Maximum sweat rates

1.5L/hr

103

High intensity exercise can have sweat rates from __-__L/hr

1-2.5

104

Volume of sweat depends on (3)

duration

intensity

Acclimatization status

105

Athlete's sweat rate depends on (3)

climatic conditions

Clothing worn

Exercise intensity

106

Factors affecting sweat rate (5)

Metabolic heat load

Temperature

Radiant heat load

Huidity

Wind speed

107

Fluid intake 4 hours prior

400-600mL, 5-7mL/kg

108

Fluid intake 2 hours prior

if no urine or dark, 3-5mL/kg

109

Fluid intake 10-20 minutes prior

200-300mL

110

Fluid intake during exercise

200-300mL (7-10oz) every 10-20 minutes

111

Fluid replacement guidelines during exercise (7)

  • Readily available
  • Pass the taste test
  • Given time to rehydrate during training and competition
  • Scheduled for early in the workout
  • Sports drinks for sessions >60-90 minutes
  • Need to practice hydration protocol in training
  • Training the stomach to handle large volumes of fluid
112

We should rehydrate to replace ___% of body weight lost

150

113

Our body weight consist of ___-__% water (Fink)

55-60

114

___% water in ICF

65

115

___% water in ECF

35%

116

3 parts of ECF

interstitial

Intravascular

lymph

117

Insterstitial fluid makes up ___% EF

75

118

Intravascular fluid makes up ___% ECF

25

119

What are starling forces?

  • Increase in blood pressure increases hydrostatic pressure
  • Increase hydrostatic pressure forces fluid out of the capillaries and into the interstitium
  • This also increases osmotic pressure in the muscle cells which tends to pull water out of the capillaries.
120

the maxiumum shift of water from the plasma is ___%

20

121

Why is exercise hazardous in the heat? (4)

Thermal distress/illness

Higher sweat rate

Effects endurance sports and anaerobic tasts over 30 seconds

Increase body temperature

122

4 types of thermal distress/illness

Dehydration

Heat cramps

Heat exhaustion

Heat stroke

123

Composition of sweat (4)

99% watre

Na, Cl, K, Mg, Ca, Iron, Copper, Zinc

Urea

amino acids

124

sweat is HYPER/HYPOtonic to blood

hypotonic

125

__% sweat comes from plasma volume

10

126

___% sweat comes from interstitial and intracellular spaces

90

127

__-__% sweat comes from interstitial space

30-40

128

___% sweat comes from intracellular spaces

50

129

3 methods of coping with heat

rehydration

hyperhydration

skin wetting

130

9 factors that impact gastic emptying

  • Temperature of drink – cool (5-15 degrees C) empty better, help cool the body.
  • Exercise intensity – moderate intensity facilitates, high intensity (>70-75%) inhibits gastric emptying
  • Mode of exercise – in first hour, no difference from cycling to running, but later rate for cycling is higher
  • Osmolality empty worse (>280-290 mOsm/L)
  • Volume – larger the volume, up to 700mL the greater the rate of gastric emptying due to pressure gradient
  • Hypotonic drinks empty faster than isotonic or hypertonic
  • Caloric density – CHO concentrations >10% decrease gastric emptying, 6-8% may be optimal
  • Dehydration decrease gastric emptying and increases risk of GI distress
  • Gender – females have lower rates
131

What temperature of drink empties better in GI?

cool, 5-15 degrees C

132

What exercise intensity facilitates gastric emptying

moderate

133

What exercise intensity inhibits gastric emptying

high intensity, >70-75%

134

What mode of exericse has higher gastric emptying after 1 hour, runnning or cycling?

cycling

135

Osmolality makes gastric emptying BETTER/WORSE

worse

136

What volume increases rate of gastric emptying?

700mL

137

Hypotonic drinks empty FASTER/SLOWER than isotonic or hypertonic drinks

faster

138

CHO concentrations >__% decrease gastric emptying

10

139

CHO concentrations __-___% are optimal gastric emptying rates

6-8

140

Dehydration INCREASE/DECREASE gastric emptying rate

decrease

141

MALES/FEMALES have lower gastric emptying rates

females

142

1g glycogen = __-__g water

2-3

143

Another word for hyponatremia

water intoxication

144

When hyponatremia occurs with exercise, it is called what?

exrecise associated hyponatremia (EAH)

145

Hyponatremia occur with sodium levels <___-___mmol/L

130-135

146

Normal range of sodium ___-____mmol/L

136-143

147

Severe symptoms occur below ____mmol/L sodium

125

148

What athletes typically affected by hyponatremia?

ultraendurance athletes

149

How does hyponatremia work?

  • Low plasma sodium concentration creates an osmotic imbalance across the blood-brain barrier that causes rapid water influx into the brain.
150

What to watch for in those with hyponatremia (3)

Tightening of skin

Enlargement of ring finger

Weight gain during prolonged exericse

151

5 symptoms of hyponatremia

headache

nausea

dizziness

vomiting

seizures

152

Causes of hyponatremia (7)

  • Drinking too much prior to workout/event
  • Consuming salt-free or low sodium diet
  • Drinking greater amounts of fluid than sweat rate
  • Drinking water only instead of beverages with electrolytes
  • Exercising >4hrs
  • Consumption of diuretics
  • Consumption of NSAIDS
153

Absorption rate of water

1L/hr

154

Average sweat rate

2-3L/hr

155

how to prevent hyponatremia (2)

consume sodium in food

Take sodium in drinks

156

You should consume ___g salt per 1 L water

1

157

Content of sweat is ___g salt/L

2.5

158

5 characteristics of heat exhaustion

profuse sweating

cold clammy skin

faintness

rapid pulse

hypotension

159

5 characteristics of heat stroke

lack of sweat

dry hot skin

muscle incoordination

mental confusion

disorientation

160

__-__% reduction in body fluids will affect performance

2-3

161

There is a __-__ degrees C increase in core temperature for every 1% loss in body weight

0.1-0.4

162

Hypohydration reduces maximal aerobic power by __-__% with a ___% loss in BW

4-8

3

163
  • 10% solution = __g/100mL fluid
  • 8% solution = __g/100mL fluid
  • 6% solution = __g/100mL fluid

10

8

6

164

>___% solution delays gastric emptying

10

165

Physiological effects of dehydration

Decrease PV:

--> increase osmolality and viscosity

--> decrease central blood volume and filling of heart

--> decrease SV

--> decrease Q

--> decrease skin blood flow and sweat rate

--> increased core temperature

166

3 roles of minerals in the body

  • Building blocks for body tissues (bone, teeth)
  • Regulators of metabolism as metalloenzymes, containing a tightly bound metal atom
  • Electrolytes and ions
167

Function of iron

Oxygen metabolism and storage

168

Vitamin D supplementation on performance

  • No real evidence that vitamin D supplement aids athletic performance
    • Some indirect evidence that suboptimal vitamin D levels are associated with reduced athletic performance.
169

Antioxidant supplementation on performance

  • Supplementation of antioxidants are mixed:
    • Reduction of muscle damage
    • No difference
    • Worse outcomes (more lipid peroxidation and inflammation)
170

Calcium supplementation on performance

  • Limited research on performance enhancing effect of calcium
    • Doesn’t seem that calcium supplementation helps except in the case of thin amenorrhea female athletes
171

Iron supplementation on performance

  • Supplementation of iron depends upon the original status
    • Improve performance of anemic individuals
    • Will not improve performance of those with normal hemoglobin and iron status
    • Question over those who are non-anemic but iron deficient
172

CHO needs 4 hours prior

4-5g/kg

173

CHO 1 hour prior

1-2g/kg

174

CHO 5-10 minutes prior

50-60g glucose polymer

175

CHO during activity

30-60g/hr

176

CHO same day recovery

1.2g/kg in 15-30 minute intervals

177

CHO practical recommendations for same day recovery

8-10g/kg

178

CHO resistance trained athletes for same day recovery

6-8g/kg

179

CHO recovery between days of endurance athletes

8-10g/kg

180

CHO recovery between days of regular athletes

5-7g/kg

181

CHO effective ergogenic aids (3)

sucrose

Glucose polymer (maltodextrin)

Amylopectin

182

CHO oxidized at rates of 1g/min

glucose

maltose

sucrose

maltodextrins

amylopectin

183

CHO pxidized at rates of 0.6g/min

fructose

galactose

amylose

184

value of CHO and PRO on athletic performance (3)

Enhance release of insulin --> promote glycogen resynthesis

NO impact on protein synthesis

Reduced proteolysis

185

PRO to CHO ratio

1: 3-4

186

4 problems associated with high protein intakes

  • Animal proteins increase blood cholesterol levels
  • Dehydration – protein breakdown produces urea, which requires the loss of water
  • Net loss of calcium
  • May put extra load on kidneys
187

Antioxidants (6)

  • Alpha tocopherol (Vitamin E)
  • Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)
  • Beta carotene
  • Selenium
  • Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone)
  • Quercetin
188

Reasons for iron deficiency in females (6)

  • Inadequate iron intake
  • Reduced iron absorption because of diets with low bioavailability (vegetarians)
  • Excessive iron loss through menses
  • Excess iron loss through sweat (0.3-0.4mg/L)
  • GI blood loss
  • Excretion of iron in urine
189

Peptides that stimulate food intake (3)

    • Neuropeptide Y
    • Agouti-related protein
    • Melanin-concentration hormone
190

_______ are peptides that stimulate food intake

orexigenic

191

Peptides thought to decrease food intake (3)

    • Pro-opiomelanocortin
    • Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone
    • Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript
192

______ are peptides that decrease food intake

anorexigenic

193

______ ________ are substances believed to be produced in the periphery and interact with neurons within the CNS stimulating the release of either orexigenic or anarexigenic neurotransmitters (interacts with the hypothalamus)

Peripheral signals

194

What part of the body do peptides interact with?

hypothalamus

195

6 types of peripheral signals

    • Leptin – reduce food intake and increase energy expenditure
    • Insulin
    • Ghrelin – appetite stimulating hormone; increase food intake and decreased decreases energy expenditure
    • Peptide YY
    • Cholecystokinin
    • Several gut hormones
196

________ reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure

Leptin

197

_______ is an appetite stimulating hormone, increasing food intake and decreasing energy expenditure

ghrelin

198

5 factors that affect food intake

Senses

Stomach fullness

Blood nutrient levels

Body temperature

Hormones and neuropeptides

199

3 blood nutrient levels

Glucostatic

Lipostatic

Aminostatic

200

In relation to the cell, where is potassium found?

inside

201

In relation to the cell, where is sodium found?

outside

202

High K = _______

hyperkalemia

203

Low K = ______

hypokalemia

204

How is potassium regulated?

renin-angiotensin aldosterone system

205

What is the key to postponing fatigue?

training

206

What is the predominate fuel of low intensity exercise?

fat

207

Fatigue in low intensity exercise is caused by (3)

hypoglycemia

dehydration

electrolyte loss

208

What is the predominate fuel in moderate intensity exericse?

CHO

209

Fatigue during moderate exercise is caused by (3)

CHO depletion

hypoglycemia

dehydration

210

Fatigue during high intensity exercise is caused by (2)

Accumulation of lactate (H) ions - mess binding of calcium to troponin

Creatine phosphate depletion

211

CHO needs of adolescent athlete %

45-65

212

CHO intake post workout

1-1.5g/kg every 2 hours

213

Adoleschent fat needs %

20-35%

214

Adolescent protein needs %

10-35%

215

Adolescent in training program protein needs

1-1.5g/kg

216

Adolescent in endurance sports protein needs

1.2-1.4g/kg

217

Adolescent in strength exercise protein needs

1.6-1.8g/kg

218

Adolescent protein needs to facilitate growth and development

0.85g/kg

219

2 micronutrient needs of adolescents

Iron and calcium

220

Peak bone mass occurs during what age range?

late 20's, early 30s

221

Male adolescent fluid needs

3.3L

222

Female adolescent fluid needs

2.3L

223

What is the holliday-segar method?

Hydration method used in adolescents, 1mL water spent for each calorie used.

Uses 4:2:1 rule

224

>___% teen girls use unhealthy weight control behaviors

50

225

Ages __-__ make up 95% of those with eating disorders

12-26

226

____% male and ____% female athletes in weight class/aesthetic sports are affected by eating disorders

33

62

227

What is part of the Female Athlete Triad

    • Disordered eating – abnormal eating habits and excessive exercise can keep the body from getting enough nutrients
    • Menstrual dysfunction – physical stress, poor nutrition, and low percentage body fat lead to changes in hormones that stop menstrual periods
    • Osteoporosis – halt in menstrual cycle can interfere with body’s ability to build bone, which can lead to stress fractures and breaks
228

Low levels of _______ accelerates bone loss and loss of menstrual cycle in females

estrogen

229

What is the male equivalent of the triad?

Low energy availability

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

Low BMD

230

Male leanness exhibit lower levels of ______ which converts to estrogen and leads to low BMD

testosterone

231

____% teenage boys exercised with goals of bulking up

90