Chapter one note cards

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1

Who was the first to demonstrate that Earth was spherical?

Aristotle.

2

First person recorded to use the word geography?

Eratosthenes.

3

A revival of geography and map making occurred during the..

Age of Exploration and Discovery.

4

The level of detail and the amount of area covered on a map depends on its what?

Scale.

5

A written scale describes...

It describes the relation between map and Earth distances in words.

6

A graphic scale usually consists of...

It usually consists of a bar line marked to show distance on Earth's surface.

7

Advantage and disadvantage of the Robinson Projection...

Adv: It is useful for displaying information across the oceans.
Disadvantage: by allocating space to the oceans, the land areas are much smaller than on other maps of the same size.

8

Advantage and disadvantage of the Mercator Projection...

Adv: Shape is distorted very little, direction is consistent, and the map is rectangular.
Disadvantage: it makes high-latitude places look much larger than they actually are.

9

What does GIS enable?

It enables geographers to calculate whether relationships between objects on a map are significant or merely coincidental.

10

What do mash-up maps show?

They show the locations of businesses and activities near a particular street or within a neighborhood in a city.

11

Geographers describe the location of a place by its...

Site.

12

Why is situation a valuable way to find location?

Because its finding an unfamiliar place and understanding its importance.

13

The location of any place on Earth's surface can be described by...

Meridians,longitude, latitude, prime meridian, and parallel lines.

14

Who was John Harrison?

An English clock maker who was the first person to measure longitude accurately.

15

The three types of regions are...

Formal regions, functional regions, and vernacular regions.

16

What are the four physical processes?

Climate, vegetation, soil, and land forms.

17

What are the five main climatic regions?

A Tropical Climates, B Dry Climates, C Warm Mid-Latitude Climates, D Cold Mid-Latitude Climates, and E Polar Climates.

18

Types of vegetation...

Forest Biome: trees that form a canopy with grasses and shrubs beneath.
Savanna Biome: trees do not form continuous canopy; lack of shade allows a lot of grass to grow.
Grassland Biome: land covered by grass instead of trees, few trees grow.
Desert Biome: patches of plants that are adapted to dry conditions.

19

Example of local, global, and national and international scales...

Local: urban neighborhood
Global: the entire world
National and International: displaying populations, religions, and where corporations are.

20

What are the three main properties of distribution?

Density, concentration, and pattern.

21

Geographers use concentration to do what?

To describe changes in distribution.

22

What describes the reduction in the time it takes for something to reach another place?

Space-time compression.

23

What does space-time compression promote?

It promotes rapid change because the culture and economy of one place reach other places quicker.

24

What must occur in order for a person, object, or idea to have interaction with other persons, objects, or ideas in other regions?

Diffusion.

25

What are the two basic types of diffusion?

Relocation diffusion and expansion diffusion.

26

Expansion diffusion may result from...

Hierarchical diffusion, Contagious diffusion, Stimulus diffusion.

27

Global culture and economy are mainly centered where?

North American, Western Europe, and Japan.