Zoology Exam 6 study (3)

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Animal Behavior
updated 6 years ago by Adunola_Bello
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1

Charles Darwin found that Animals act to ensure what?

Survival

2

Charles Darwin found that there are several ways to study behavior, what are these ways?

  • Mechanisms of behavior ("How")
  • Function of behavior ("Why")
3

Proximal Causation (Hormone) falls under which way of studying behavior?

Mechanisms of Behavior

4

The interaction between the Endocrine and nervous system is an example of what?

Proximal causation (Mechanism of behavior)

5

Ultimate Causation (Purpose) falls under which way of studying behavior?

Function of Behavior

6

The study of measurable behavior is called what?

Ethology

7

Ethology studies animals where?

In their natural environment

8

Enthology studies focuses on what?

Ultimate factors

9

Ethology can be put into evolutionary context to do what?

Understand causation

10

The Father of Ethology is who studied the imprinting behavior of birds.

Konrad Lorenz

11

One of the Fathers of Ethology who studies insects and bees, first to describe communication among animals.

Karl Von Frisch

12

Studied birds (Gulls) with Konrad Lorenz

Niko Tinberg

13

Sociobiology was formalized by whom?

E.O Wilson

14

Which Organisms exhibited the pinnacle of complex behavior?

  • Colonial invertebrates (Portuguese man-o-war)
  • Social insects
  • Nonhuman mammals
  • Humans
15

Ethological studies that understand the general (Universal) laws of behavior by utilizing laboratory experiments.

Comparative Psychology

16

Behavioral ecology focuses on what context?

Evolutionary and Environmental

17

Behavioral focuses on what?

  • Behavior relating to fitness and survival
  • Maximizing reproductive success
18

The focus on how evolution shaped human behaviors

Evolutionary Psychology

19

What are the 5 principles of classical ethology?

  • Egg-retrieval response in geese
  • Stereotypical behavior .
  • Releaser=Stimulus triggers behavior
  • Sign Stimulus= Effective stimulus
  • Behavioral syndromes=Explain individual variation
20

A stimulus that triggers a behavior is called what?

A releaser

21

An effective stimulus (Range of stimuli(

sign stimulus

22

Programmed behaviors are said to be..

Innate (instinctive)

23

Programmed behaviors are acquired how?

Through genetic basis: Evolutionary change

24

How do Hybrids react to programmed behaviors?

They may be confused

25

The interaction between the Endocrine and nervous system is an example of what?

Proximal causation (Mechanism of behavior)

26

What is an example of learning?

The gill Withdrawal reflex

27

Learning to ignore a stimulus that usually causes a reaction

Habituation

28

The reversion of Habituation is called?

Sensitization

29

How does learning occur?

Changes/"rewiring" of neurotransmitters

30

Learning that occurs in the critical period.

Imprinting

31

What is an example of imprinting?

Song learning in white crowned sparrow

32

What are the 2 types of social behavior?

  • Socially coordinated behavior
  • Socially coorperative behavior
33

Describe socially coordinated behaviors.

  • Individuals adjust actions to directly increase reproductive response
  • Agonistic (aggressive) and competitive behavior
34

What are examples of agonistic (agressive) behavior?

  • Fighting
  • threat display
  • dominance heirchy
  • territoriality
35

Describe the socially coorperative behavior.

They are actions that benefit others but ultimately benefiting individual's reproductive success.

36

What are examples of coorperative behavior?

  • coorperative foraging
  • breeding
37

What are some advantages of sociality?

  • Defense; alarm call
  • Reproduction: mate across
  • Hunting
  • Protection
  • Learning
38

Coorperative behaviors that benefit others is called what?

Altruism

39

True or false, group selection is an explanation for altruism.

False, Kin selection

40

What does Kin selection require?

That group members are genetically related

41

What concept is Kin selectin based on?

inclusive fitness (offspring does not have to be directly related i.e. aunts, cousins..etc)

42

What are examples of altruistic animals?

  • Eusocial insects
  • Ground squirrels
  • Cannibalistic tadpoles
43

The Idea that animals are more likely to help another animal if they believe that that animal might help them later on

Reciprocal Altruism

44

Behavioral evology focuses on what?

  • Behavior relating to fitness and survival
  • Maximizing reproductive success
45

What are the 2 types of mating systems?

  • Monogamy
  • Polygamy
46

What are the two types of polygamy?

  • Polygany (1 male with multiple females)
  • Polyandry (1 female with multiple males)
47

What are the three systems of Polygany?

  1. Resource defense
  2. Female defense
  3. Male Dominance
48

The system in which a male controls the resources. (defends food and mates)

resource-defense

49

The system in which the male defends a group of females and breeds only with those females

Female-defense

50

System in which Males aggregate and compete for attention of female (Lek)

Male-Dominance

51

A mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with , and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex.

Sexual selection

52

Examples of Sexual selection.

  • Display
  • Aggression