Chapter 1

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Chapter 1
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What are maps used as? Why do we need maps?

-A reference too
-A communications tool

Maps are for where and why questions
Maps: A two-dimension or flat scale model of something


Geography Categories are?

Human and physical
Human: activities
Physical: Natural Forces
*Human: Culture and Economy


Why is everything unique?

Places and Regions
Places: A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic
Regions: an area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features


Types of Map Scale
How to view the Earth through maps

Level of detail depends on the scale
Flat maps can be distorted
Use projection
What can be distorted
-relative size



card image

Robinson Projection
Mercator Projection: distorted and rectangular


Land Ordinance of 1785

Divided into townships
base lines



GPS: system that accurately determines the precise position of something on Earth
Remote Sensing: acquisition of data from a satellite orbiting Earth or from another long-distance method
GIS: computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic date


Unique Location and Place Names

What makes it unique is place and region
Humans want a sense of belong
Location: describes a feature

Toponym: the name given to a place on Earth
Sometimes places are named after people or specific features
Names can because of political or new people


Site and Situation

Site: the physical character of a place
Climate, resources, Soil, Vegetation
Locate settlements from resources
Humans can modify the site

Situation: a location relative to other places
Helps us compare an unfamiliar place with a familiar one
Helps us understand the importance of a location
Many locations are important because they are accessible through other locations


Mathematical Location and Cultural Landscape

Meridian: arc between the north and south poles, known as longitude
Prime Meridian passes through the Royal Observatory
Parallel: circle around the globe parallel to the equator

Cultural Landscape: a combo of cultural features


Formal Regions, Functional Regions and Vernacular Region

Formal Region: everyone shares common characteristics
Greenwich Mean Time: master reference time for all points on Earth

Used to display information about economic areas
Vernacular Region: a particular place where people believe it exists as their cultural identity
Mental Map: internal representation of a place or location


Spatial Association and Regional Integration of Culture

And area that can contain a wide variety of things
They communicate different things about different regions
Customary beliefs and traits
Culture Meaning:
To care of: Agriculture, others, food clothing
To care about: language, religion, values


Cultural Ecology and Climate

Cultural Ecology: study of human-environment relationships
The physical environment caused social development, known as Environmental Determinism
Possibilism: environment that may limit human actions but the people can change it
Resources: substances that are useful to people

Tropical Climates
Dry Climates
Warm Mid-Latitude Climates
Cold Mid-Latitude Climates
Polar Climates


Vegetation and Soil

Forest Biome
Savanna Biome
Grassland Biome
Desert Biome

Not merely dirt, contains essential resources needed
Farmers also use additional resources to help the crops grow more


Modifying the environment

Humans can now modify the landscape more than in the past
There are new technologies that enable this
Human actions also use up resources quickly and foolishly
A/C has increased the amount of living in hotter regions, but also increase the amount of ozone in the air


Sensitive Environment

The Dutch modified their environment with polders and dikes
Polders: a piece of land by draining water
Dikes to prevent ocean water from leaking in


South Florida

Florida contains barrier islands, wetlands, and the Everglades
Built a levee and drained 1/3 of the Everglades
Polluted water was from grazing on the banks
The barrier islands protect the mainland from most of the Ocean’s attacks but have grown weak


Scale: From Local to Global

“Think global, act local”
Geography matters because it tells population, and religion in different areas, etc


Globalization of Economy

Globalization: a force that involves the entire world, and making something worldwide
Most activities in one area are effected by another area
Transnational Corporation: produce things and sells them to many countries, not just where the headquarters are located
Each place has some role in globalization
It cause economic difference throughout the world


Globalization of Culture

Certain items throughout the world have uniform actions
Globalization of Communication: allows people to share similar things at similar times
Disagreements culturally and politically can arise from cultural difference Ex: al-Qaeda terrorists


Space: Distribution of Features

Geographers look at people in a place, and see how they interact
Immanuel Kant compared geography’s concern for space to history’s concern for time
History and geography differ, history cannot study eras first hand, but geography can study the area


Distribution and Density

Distribution: the arrangement of a feature in space
Density: the frequency with which something occurs in space
Arithmetic Density: total number of objects in an area
Physiological density: the number of people per unit of area suitable for agriculture
Agricultural Density: the number of farmers per unit of area of farmland


Concentration and Pattern

Concentration: the extent of a feature’s spread over space
Used to describe changes in distribution
Concentration is not the same as density

Pattern: the third property of distribution, which is the geometric of objects in space


Gender and Ethnic Diversity in Space

Patterns vary according to gender and ethnicity
Ex: “all-American” family
Women and other races in the past were discriminated, although now doing such things are illegal
Certain people may be attracted to certain locations
Academics and education also play a role in the issue of cultural diversity


Connections Between Places

Uneven Development: the gap between the economic conditions
Space-Time Compression: the reduction in the time it takes for something to reach another place


Spatial Interaction

Most forms of interaction in the past required physical movement
Today you can travel by a motor vehicle or airplane, or even use the internet
Transportation systems now show all networks connected
Distance Decay: trailing off phenomenon



Diffusion: the process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time
Hearth: the place from which an innovation originates


Expansion Diffusion

Expansion Diffusion: the spread of a feature
Hierarchical Diffusion: the spread of an idea from person of power to other persons
Contagious Diffusion: rapid diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population
Stimulus Diffusion: the spread of an underlying principle even though a characteristic fails to diffuse