digestive study set

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created 5 years ago by bioshark
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1

_______ is the principal enzyme for breaking down carbohydrates.

Amylase

2

liver

  • The largest gland in the body
3

Stomach

  • Chemical breakdown of proteins begins and food is converted to chyme
  • Holds ingested food
  • Degrades this food both physically and chemically
  • Delivers chyme to the small intestine
  • Enzymatically digests proteins with pepsin
  • Secretes intrinsic factor required for absorption of vitamin B12
4

gallbladder

  • Thin-walled, green muscular sac on the ventral surface of the liver
  • Stores and concentrates bile by absorbing its water and ions
  • Releases bile via the cystic duct, which flows into the bile duct
5

bile

  • A yellow-green, alkaline solution containing bile salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, neutral fats, phospholipids, and electrolytes
6

Bile Salts are cholesterol derivatives that:

  • Emulsify fat
  • Facilitate fat and cholesterol absorption
  • Help solubilize cholesterol
7

pharynx

  • From the mouth, the oro- and laryngopharynx allow passage of:
  • Food and fluids to the esophagus
  • Air to the trachea
8

esophagus

  • Muscular tube going from the laryngopharynx to the stomach
  • Travels through the mediastinum and pierces the diaphragm
  • Joins the stomach at the cardiac orifice
9

small intestine

  • Runs from pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve
  • Has three subdivisions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
  • The bile duct and main pancreatic duct:
  • Join the duodenum at the hepatopancreatic ampulla
  • Are controlled by the sphincter of Oddi
  • The jejunum extends from the duodenum to the ileum
  • The ileum joins the large intestine at the ileocecal valve
10

salivary glands

  • Produce and secrete saliva that:
  • Cleanses the mouth
  • Moistens and dissolves food chemicals
  • Aids in bolus formation
  • Contains enzymes that break down starch
  • Three pairs of extrinsic glands – parotid, submandibular, and sublingual
  • Intrinsic salivary glands (buccal glands) – scattered throughout the oral mucosa
11

teeth

  • Primary and permanent dentitions have formed by age 21
  • Primary – 20 deciduous teeth that erupt at intervals between 6 and 24 months
  • Permanent – enlarge and develop causing the root of deciduous teeth to be resorbed and fall out between the ages of 6 and 12 years
  • All but the third molars have erupted by the end of adolescence

There are usually 32 permanent teeth

12

sphincter of Oddi (hepatopancreatic sphincter)

a smooth muscle valve that controls the entry of bile and pancreatic juice.