Zoology Exam 6 study guide (2)

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Nervous coordination: Nervous system and sense organs
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1

Describe the Hormonal communication in our body.

It is very slow

2

Describe the Neural communication is our body.

It is very fast

3

What is the function unit of the nervous system?

Neuron

4

What is the reveiving end of a neuron called?

card image

Dendrites

5

The area of conduction, in which information is passed down.

Axon

6

The insulating fatty envelope that surrounds the core of a nerve fiber or axon and facilitates the transmission of nerve impulses.

Myelin sheath

7

Myelin sheath are produced by what?

Schwann cells.

8

What are the 3 diffent types of neurons?

  1. Afferent
  2. Efferent
  3. Interneuron
9

Sensory neurons are called what?

Afferent Neurons

10

What are Afferent neurons responsible for?

Brings stimulus in to the central nervous system

11

Motor neurons are known as what?

Efferent Neurons

12

What are efferent neurons responsible for?

Taking information from the central nervous system out to the periphery and skeletal muscles.

13

What are interneurons responsible for?

Connecting neurons to other neurons

14

A Nerve is comprised of what?

A huge bundle of axons

15

Within a nerve there are many different __________________.

Fascicles.

16

Within each fascicle of a nerve there are many __________________.

card image

Neurons

17

A typical neuron has what?

A resting potential.

18

Inside the Axon, the resting membrane potential is what?

-70 mV

19

What maintains the sodium-potassium (ion) balance within a cell?

An exchange pump.

20

What is an action potential?

An all or none electrical signal.

21

What happens during an action potential?

The membrane depolarizes very quickly. (goes from -70 mV to 35 mV)

22

When we say that an action potential is "self propagating", what do we mean?

Once the signal is sent, it transmits itself through the axon, it doesn't need to be sent over and over again.

23

How is an action potential signal transmitted.

Through voltage-gated sodium channels.

24

How are the voltage gates of a sodium channel opened?

Either side of the membrane experience a voltage change.

25

The speed at which an action potential is propagated correlates with what?

The diameter of the axon.

26

Describe the Axon of a squid.

It is giant

27

What type of conduction do vetebrates rely on?

Sultatory

28

Sultatory conduction also means what?

"Jumping conduction"

29

How does depolarization work with salutatory conduction?

The whole Axon is not depolarized, only portions of the Axon is depolarized.

30

What route does the salutatory conduction occur in?

Via the nodes of ranvier

31

The space between the neuron and the effector is called what?

A synapse

32

What are the two ways that a signal can be transmitted between a neuron and an effector?

  1. Electrically
  2. Chemically
33

How is a signal transmitted electrically between a neuron and an effector?

A current flows across the synapse (gap)

34

Describe a chemical synapse.

They use a neurotransmitter (chemical) to facilitate the transmission of information across the synapse.

35

What is an example of a neurotransmitter?

Acetylcholine

36

A chemical synapse uses what kind of channel?

A chemically gated channel.

37

What are the 2 types of neurotransmitters?

Excitatory and inhibitory.

38

What does an excitatory neuritransmitter do?

is causes depolarization.

39

What is an example of an excitatory neurotransmitter?

Glutamate

40

What does an inhibitory neurotransmitter do?

It prevents depolarization.

41

What are examples of inhibitory neurotransmitters?

  • Gaba
  • Glycine
42

What is an example of a neurotransmitter that is both inhibitory and excitatory?

Acetylcholine

43

Describe the excitatory synaptic function.

  1. Ach binds to a chemiclally gated channel
  2. Volatage gate channels open
  3. Ions flow in
  4. Ach is immediately inactivated and recycle
44

Which enzyme breaks down Acetylcholine?

cholinesterase

45

What happens in an inhibitory synaptic function?

The cell is hyperpolarized and the membrane potential of the cell becomes more negative, preventing a signal from being transported.

46

What are the simplest nervous systems?

Nerve nets

47

Animals with which kind of symmetry have nerve nets?

Radial symmetry.

48

When we say that an action potential is "self propagating", what do we mean?

Once the signal is sent, it transmits itself through the axon, it doesn't need to be sent over and over again.

49

Which were the first organisms to have bilateral symmetry and cephalization?

Flatworms

50

The concentration of sense organs, nervous control, etc., at the anterior end of the body, forming a head and brain

Cephalization

51

Flatworms are said to have a simple __________________ and _________________ nervous system.

Central and peripheral.

52

What does the nervous system of complex invertebrates consist of?

  • Ganglia
  • Afferent (sensory)
  • Efferent (motor)
53

Which organisms have the most complex and adapted nervous systems?

Vetebrates

54

The Nervous system of vertebrates consist of what?

  • Brain
  • Spinal Cord
  • Meninges
55

The Brain, the spinal cord, and the meninges make up what?

The central nervous system of vertebrates

56

Describe the evolution of the nervous system.

  1. Nerve Net
  2. Simple central and peripheral systems
  3. Cephalization, ganglia, afferent, efferent
  4. Encephalization, Brain, Spinal Cord, Meninges
57

Nerve cell bodies are located where?

within the grey matter

58

The (motor) efferent (out) pathway is located where?

card image

In the ventral root

59

The (sensory) Afferent (in) pathway is located where?

card image

in the dorsal root

60

What is the tissue origin of the brain?

The Ectoderm

61

How many main regions of the brain are there?

3

62

What are the 3 main regions of the brain?

  1. Rhombencephalon
  2. Mesencephalon
  3. Prosencephalon
63

The hind brain is known as...

The Rhombencephalon

64

The Mid brain is known as...

Mesencephalon

65

The Fore brain is known as what?

Prosencephalon

66

The brain stem is what?

The Rhombencephalon

67

What does the Rhombencephalon consist of?

  1. Medulla Oblongata
  2. Cerebellum
68

The Mesencephalon consists of what?

Tectum (optic lobes)

69

The Prosencephalon consists of what?

  1. Thalamus
  2. Hypothalamus
  3. Cerebrum
70

The Rhombencephalon can be furthur divided into what?

  1. Myelencephalon
  2. Metencephalon
71

Which part of the Rhombencephalon forms the pons and cerebellum?

Metencephalon

72

Which part of the Rhombencephalon forms the medulla?

The Myelencephalon

73

The Prosencephalon is further divided into what?

  • Telencephalon
  • Diecephalon
74

The Telencephalon of the procencephalon is responsible for what?

Thinking

75

The Diencephalon of the procencephalon is responsible for what?

Integration

76

The Telencephalon consists of what?

The cerebrum

77

The Diencephalon consists of what?

  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus
78

The Peripheral nervous system consists of what?

  • Sensory (Afferent) Nerves
  • Motor (Efferent) Nerves
79

The motor neurons can be further subdivided into what?

  • Somatic (operate skeletal muscle)
  • Autonomic (Smooth and cardiac muscles, glands)
80

What systems are within the autonomic system?

  • Parasympathetic
  • Sympathetic
81

The 'fight or flight' phenomenon take place in which system?

The parasympathetic system of the autonomic system

82

The detection of chemicals is called what?

Chemoreception

83

What are examples of chemoreceptors

  • Nose
  • Tongue
84

The behavior of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus

Chemotaxis

85

What is an example of a contact chemoreceptor?

Tongue

86

What is an example of a distance chemoreceptor?

Nose

87

What do insects use for chemoreception?

Sensilla

88

What do vertebrates use as a contact chemoreceptor?

Taste bud

89

What are the five different taste senses?

  • Sweet
  • bitter
  • sour
  • salty
  • umamy (savory)
90

What is the chemo-reception by the nose called?

Olfaction

91

Insects secrete pheromones and detect them using what?

Sensilla

92

How do vertebrates detect pheromones?

Vemeronasal organ (VNO)

93

Mechanoreception is a response to what?

Motion

94

What are 3 types of motions that mechanoreceptors can respond to?

  • Pressure
  • Vibration
  • Gravity
95

What kind of motion is touch?

Pressure

96

What mechanoreceptors do invertebrates use to detect touch?

Sensory cells with tactile hairs

97

What mechanoreceptors do vertebrates use to detect touch?

Free nerve endings

98

What touch mechanoreceptors do we use for deeper sensations?

Picinian corpuscles

99

Where can Picinian corpuscles be found?

  • Skin
  • Connective tissue
  • Mesenteries
100

What do Picinian corpuscles consist of?

Bare nerve ending surrounded by layers of thin connective tissue

101

What process is used by vertebrates to detect touch?

Graded potential until threshold is reached

102

After an initial stimulus of touch, we being to undergo _____________________, in which we begin to no longer remain aware of the stimulus.

Adaptation

103
card image

The Lateral line receptor is also known as what?

The distant touch receptor

104

The cell responsible for the mechanoreception in the lateral line system is called what?

card image

They hair cell

105

The stereocilia of a hair cell are embedded in what?

A Gelatinous matrix

106

The Gelatenous matrix in which stereocilia are ended in is called what?

A cupula

107

A clump of hair cells is called what?

a Neuromast

108

Neuromasts are located where?

Underneath the skin and inside the lateral line canal

109

True or false, The Lateral line system is not used for electroreception.

True, it is used for mechanoreception.

110

What do invertebrates use to maintain equilibrium (balance)?

Statocyst

111

The Statocyst are lined with which kind of cells?

Hair cells

112

A structure in the statocyst, which allows certain invertebrates to sense gravity and balance

Statolith

113

The inner ear of a a vertebrate used for equilibrium (balance).

Labyrinth

114

What is the basic structure of a labyrinth?

card image
  • Saccule and Utricle
  • Semicircular canals
115

The Saccule and Utricle in the Labyrinth are important for what?

  • Detecting our position relative to gravity
  • Detecting Linear acceleration
  • Detecting Starts and Stops
116

The Semicircular canal in the Labyrinth is important for what?

  • Detecting 3 dimensional space
  • Detects rotational acceleration
117

The legena is modified for what in tetrapods?

Hearing

118

Which are the only invertebrates shown to have evidence for hearing?

  • Crustaceans
  • Spiders
  • Insects
119

Also known as the Tympanic membrane, It is the cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear in humans and other tetrapods

Eardrum

120

The eardrum covers what?

An air filled space

121

The Eustachian tube connects our air filled space to what?

The Pharynx

122

How many inner ear bones do we have?

3

123

What is the general name of the 3 inner ear bones?

Ossicles

124

What are the names of the 3 ossicles?

  • Malleus (Hammer)
  • Incus (Anvil)
  • Stapes (stirrup)
125

The Lagena becomes modified into what?

The Cochlea

126

How many fluid filled tubes are within the Cochlea?

3

127

The Cochlea contains what?

3 fluid filled tubes

128

The Hair Cells embedded in the Tectorial membrane is called what?

Organ of Corti

129

How many hair cells do humans have?

24,000

130

The place hypothesis explains what?

How we hear

131

What does the place hypothesis state?

That different areas respond to different frequencies

132

What is responsible for volume?

The number of hair cells that get stimulated

133

What is responsible for the timbre (tone/quality) of a sound?

The pattern in which the hair cells are stimulated

134

a light-sensitive pigmented spot on the bodies of invertebrate animals such as flatworms, starfishes, and microscopic crustaceans, and also in some unicellular organisms.

Eyespots

135

The compound eye of Arthropods are composed of units called_____________________________

Ommatidia

136

Vertebrates have similar eyes to which phylum?

Cephalapods

137

Study the structure of an eye

card image
138

What are the two photoreceptors in the Human retina?

  1. Rods
  2. Cones
139

Rods are used for what?

Vision in low-light

140

Cones are used for what?

Sensitivity to color

141

How many types of cones do we have?

3

142

What is the name of the pigments in our cones?

Rhodopsim

143

What is the name of the enzymes in the cytoplasm of our cone cells?

Opsin

144

When a photon of light hits a cone cell, what is triggered?

  • The change in the shape of the Retina
  • The enzymatic reaction of Opsin