Genes and the immune
Which one of the following is typically attacked by the antibody-mediated response, not the cell-mediated response?
Circulating antibodies are produced by
A.all cells in the immune system.
D.T cells alone.
According to the current theory of antibody formation
A.gene clusters are identical in all antibody-forming cells.
B.antibody gene clusters are closely linked.
C.gene fusion accompanies B cell maturation.
D.each B cell can make many types of antibodies.
E.all germ cells carry only one V gene.
The quick response of the immune system to a second infection is due to
A .activation of macrophage cells.
B. suppression of suppressor cells.
C. T and B memory cells.
D. high levels of antigen.
E. new cytotoxic T cells.
Skin grafts between identical twins are more successful than grafts between more unrelated individuals. Why?
A. Identical twins share the same uterine environment.
B. Twins are exactly matched in age.
C. Identical twins have identical HLA alleles.
D. Identical twins are the same sex.
E.None of these is true.
Incompatibility in the Rh blood system can result in hemolytic disease of the newborn. The following combination poses the greatest risk:
A. Rh positive mother, Rh negative fetus
B. Rh positive father, Rh negative fetus
C. Rh negative mother, Rh positive fetus
D. Rh negative mother, Rh negative fetus
E. Rh positive mother, Rh negative father
Which of the following is a pair of agents that both puncture the membranes of foreign bacteria?
A. Macrophages and helper T cells
B. MAC and killer T cells
C. Antibodies and killer T cells
D. Antibodies and plasma cells
E.MAC and plasma cells
Activated B cells divide rapidly to produce
A. effector cells.
B. memory cells.
C. phagocytic cells.
D. effector cells and memory cells.
E.effector cells and phagocytic cells.
The MHC complex is a set of genes that
A. encodes cell recognition molecules.
B. is located on chromosome 6.
C. produces molecules to which antigens must attach in order to activate cell-mediated immunity.
D. prevents the immune system from attacking the body's own tissues.
E. has all of these traits.
The major obstacle to the use of xenotransplants is ________________.
A. not enough human donors
B. finding the right sized animals
C. resistance from opponents of genetically modified animals
D. organ rejection by recipients
E. more than one of these
The major obstacle to the use of xenotransplants is overcome by ________________.
A. series of injections that depress the immune systems of recipients
B. changing genetic markers in humans to make them more receptive
C. changing genetic markers in donor animals to make them more compatible with human recipients
D. introducing a complement of immune system genes to both the donor animal and recipient human
E. doing more than one of these
The xenotransplant animal donor of choice is a ______________.
Mucus production is a part of which line of immune response?
A. Physical barriers
D. Inflammatory response
B. Antibody-mediated immunity
E. More than one of these
C. Cell-mediated immunity
In an inflammatory response, the direct effect of histamine is to _______________.
A. dilate blood vessels causing increased blood flow to the area of infection
B. decrease heat accumulation in the area of infection
C.directly kill bacteria
D.attack cytotoxic T cells
E.cause B cells to release antibodies
What is the underlying molecular cause of Crohn’s disease?
A. B cells are mutated and do not release antibodies.
B. Receptor proteins are mutated and do not detect bacteria properly.
C. Helper T cells are inactivated.
D.Mucus is not released from epithelial tissues.
E. More than one of these in combination.
Which of the following is most closely associated with a MAC attack?
A. Complement proteins
B. Helper T cells
Which of the following have a memory component?
A. The adaptive immune response
B. The innate immune response
C. The inflammatory response
D. The physical barrier response
E. More than one of these
Where in the human body can you find T cells?
A. Bone marrow
C. Thymus glands
E. All of these
Which of the following blood types are safe to transfuse to O blood types?
E.All of these blood types are safe to transfuse to O blood types
Hemolytic disease of newborns comes about when the mother is ______ and the baby is ______.
A.Rh positive; Rh negative
B. Rh negative; Rh positive
C. Rh positive; Rh positive
D. Rh negative; Rh negative
E. more than one of these; more than one of these
How many HLA haplotypes does each human have?
For an organ transplant to be successful, which of the following genes should be matched as closely as possible?
D.Membrane attack complex genes
B.Human leukocyte antigen genes
E.Complement protein genes
C.T-cell receptor genes
HIV targets ______________ cells for infection.
A.the helper T cells
B.the cytotoxic T cells
C.the B cells
D.the red blood cells
E.more than one of these