Chapter 13 The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes

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1

1) The spinal cord is part of the ________ nervous system.

A) peripheral

B) somatic

C) central

D) autonomic

E) afferent

C) central

2

2) The ________ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support to the spinal cord as a component of the coccygeal ligament.

A) conus medullaris

B) filum terminale

C) cauda equina

D) dorsal root

E) ventral root

B) filum terminale

3

3) Spinal nerves are

A) purely sensory.

B) purely motor.

C) both sensory and motor.

D) interneuronal.

E) involuntary.

C) both sensory and motor.

4

4) The spinal cord consists of four regions and ________ segments.

A) five

B) twelve

C) twenty-five

D) thirty-one

E) The number varies widely among individuals.

D) thirty-one

5

5) The dorsal root ganglia mainly contain

A) axons of motor neurons.

B) axons of sensory neurons.

C) cell bodies of motor neurons.

D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.

E) synapses.

D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.

6

6) The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains

A) axons of motor neurons.

B) axons of sensory neurons.

C) cell bodies of motor neurons.

D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.

E) interneurons.

B) axons of sensory neurons.

7

7) The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains

A) axons of motor neurons.

B) axons of sensory neurons.

C) cell bodies of motor neurons.

D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.

E) interneurons.

A) axons of motor neurons.

8

8) The tough, fibrous, outermost covering of the spinal cord is the

A) arachnoid.

B) pia mater.

C) dura mater.

D) epidural block.

E) periosteum.

C) dura mater.

9

9) After age ________, the vertebral column continues to elongate, but the spinal cord itself does not.

A) 8

B) 12

C) 18

D) 4

E) 1

D) 4

10

10) If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed,

A) output to skeletal muscles would be blocked.

B) output to visceral organs would be blocked.

C) the spinal cord would not be able to process information at that level.

D) the brain would not be able to communicate with that level of the spinal cord.

E) sensory input would be blocked.

E) sensory input would be blocked.

11

11) The subdural space lies between

A) the arachnoid mater and the pia mater.

B) the pia mater and the dura mater.

C) the dura mater and the arachnoid mater.

D) the pia mater and the subarachnoid space.

E) the endosteum and the periosteum.

C) the dura mater and the arachnoid mater.

12

12) The layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the

A) dura mater.

B) subarachnoid space.

C) arachnoid.

D) pia mater.

E) choroid plexus.

D) pia mater.

13

13) A dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form a

A) cervical enlargement.

B) lumbar enlargement.

C) spinal nerve.

D) spinal meninx.

E) spinal ganglion.

C) spinal nerve.

14

14) In meningitis,

A) inflammation of the meninges occurs.

B) bacteria can be the cause.

C) viruses can be the cause.

D) CSF flow can be disrupted.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

15

15) Which of the following is true regarding an epidural block?

A) It is commonly used as a method of pain control during labor and delivery.

B) It affects only the spinal nerves in the immediate area of the injection.

C) It can provide sensory and motor anesthesia, depending on the anesthetic selected.

D) It can provide mainly sensory anesthesia, depending on the anesthetic selected.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

16

16) Cerebrospinal fluid flows within the

A) filum terminale.

B) subarachnoid space.

C) dura mater.

D) pia mater.

E) arachnoid mater.

B) subarachnoid space.

17

17) The spinal cord continues to elongate until about age

A) 20 years.

B) 10 years.

C) 4 years.

D) 6 months.

E) 2 months.

C) 4 years.

18

18) The specialized membranes that surround the spinal cord are termed the

A) cranial meninges.

B) cranial mater.

C) spinal meninges.

D) spinal mater.

E) epidural membranes.

C) spinal meninges.

19

19) Blood vessels that supply the spinal cord run along the surface of the

A) pia mater.

B) dura mater.

C) epidural space.

D) subdural space.

E) subarachnoid space.

A) pia mater.

20

20) Samples of CSF for diagnostic purposes are normally obtained by placing the tip of a needle in the

A) dura mater.

B) arachnoid mater.

C) epidural space.

D) subarachnoid space.

E) cerebral ventricles.

D) subarachnoid space.

21

21) In an adult, the conus medullaris is found at about

A) T6.

B) T10.

C) L1.

D) L5.

E) C1.

C) L1.

22

22) Bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. As a result, which of the following would you expect?

A) loss of sensation in his torso

B) inability to breathe

C) problems with moving his arms

D) uncontrollable sweating of his feet

E) problems moving his legs

A) loss of sensation in his torso

23

23) The white matter of the spinal cord is mainly

A) unmyelinated axons.

B) neuroglia.

C) Schwann cells.

D) myelinated axons.

E) nodes of Ranvier.

D) myelinated axons.

24

24) The gray horns of the spinal cord contain mainly

A) nerve tracts.

B) columns.

C) meninges.

D) neuron cell bodies.

E) funiculi.

D) neuron cell bodies.

25

25) The posterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly

A) sensory nuclei.

B) somatic motor nuclei.

C) autonomic motor nuclei.

D) nerve tracts.

E) sympathetic nuclei.

A) sensory nuclei.

26

26) The anterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly

A) sensory nuclei.

B) somatic motor nuclei.

C) autonomic motor nuclei.

D) nerve tracts.

E) sympathetic nuclei.

B) somatic motor nuclei.

27

27) Nerve tracts or fasciculi make up the

A) central canal.

B) posterior gray horns.

C) gray commissures.

D) white columns.

E) anterior gray horns.

D) white columns.

28

28) In the spinal cord, white matter is separated into ascending and descending tracts organized as

A) nuclei.

B) ganglia.

C) columns.

D) nerves.

E) horns.

C) columns.

29

29) The outward projections from the central gray matter of the spinal cord, seen easily in microscopic spinal cord cross sections, are called

A) wings.

B) horns.

C) pyramids.

D) fibers.

E) tracts.

B) horns.

30

30) Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the

A) anterior gray horns.

B) lateral gray horns.

C) posterior gray horns.

D) gray commissures.

E) white commissures.

D) gray commissures.

31

31) The white matter of the spinal cord contains

A) bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions.

B) bundles of dendrites with common origins, destinations, and functions.

C) sensory and motor nuclei.

D) both axons and dendrites.

E) interneurons.

A) bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions.

32

38) Into what spinal area would one inject a chemical whose purpose is to anesthetize the patient?

A) the subarachnoid space

B) the central canal

C) the subdural space

D) the epidural space

E) the venous dural sinus

D) the epidural space

33

39) The outermost connective-tissue covering of nerves is the

A) endoneurium.

B) endomysium.

C) perineurium.

D) epineurium.

E) epimysium.

D) epineurium.

34

40) The preganglionic fibers that connect a spinal nerve with an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cord and carries visceral motor fibers that are myelinated form the

A) white rami communicantes.

B) gray rami communicantes.

C) dorsal ramus.

D) ventral ramus.

E) dermatomes.

A) white rami communicantes.

35

41) The postganglionic fibers that connect an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic or lumbar region with the spinal nerve and contain postganglionic fibers that innervate glands in the body wall or smooth muscles in limbs are

A) white rami communicantes.

B) gray rami communicantes.

C) dorsal ramus.

D) ventral ramus.

E) dermatomes.

B) gray rami communicantes.

36

42) Postganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system that innervate internal organs are

A) dorsal rami.

B) ventral rami.

C) white rami.

D) gray rami.

E) sympathetic nerves.

E) sympathetic nerves.

37

43) Which of the following associations is incorrect?

A) 8 cervical spinal nerves

B) 11 thoracic spinal nerves

C) 5 lumbar spinal nerves

D) 5 sacral spinal nerves

E) 1 coccygeal spinal nerve

B) 11 thoracic spinal nerves

38

44) The ________ of each spinal nerve innervates the skin and muscles of the back.

A) white ramus communicantes

B) gray ramus communicantes

C) dorsal ramus

D) ventral ramus

E) dermatome

C) dorsal ramus

39

45) Muscles of the neck and shoulder are innervated by spinal nerves from the ________ region.

A) cervical

B) thoracic

C) lumbar

D) sacral

E) coccygeal

A) cervical

40

46) The ventral rami of spinal nerves C5 to T1 contribute fibers to the ________ plexus.

A) cervical

B) brachial

C) lumbar

D) sacral

E) thoracic

B) brachial

41

47) In which plexus does the ulnar nerve arise?

A) cranial

B) cervical

C) brachial

D) lumbar

E) sacral

C) brachial

42

48) In the condition ________, a virus infects dorsal root ganglia, causing a painful rash whose distribution corresponds to that of the affected sensory nerves as seen in their dermatomes.

A) myasthenia gravis

B) neuronal damage

C) shingles

D) chickenpox

E) Hodgkin's disease

C) shingles

43

49) The layer of connective tissue that surrounds a fascicle within a peripheral nerve is the

A) perineurium.

B) epineurium.

C) endoneurium.

D) epimysium.

E) endosteum.

A) perineurium.

44

50) Spinal nerves from the sacral region of the cord innervate the ________ muscles.

A) shoulder

B) intercostal

C) abdominal

D) leg

E) facial

D) leg

45

51) The ________ innervates the ventrolateral body surface, structures in the body wall, and the limbs.

A) white rami communicantes

B) gray rami communicantes

C) dorsal ramus

D) ventral ramus

E) dermatomes

D) ventral ramus

46

52) The obturator nerve is distributed to the

A) adductors of the hip.

B) skin over the perineum.

C) extensors of the hip.

D) skin over buttocks.

E) biceps femoris.

A) adductors of the hip.

47

53) A viral disease that destroys the cells of the anterior gray horn will

A) lead to skeletal muscle weakness or paralysis.

B) interfere with position sense.

C) mainly interfere with crude touch and temperature sense.

D) block autonomic regulation.

E) affect visceral motor function.

A) lead to skeletal muscle weakness or paralysis.

48

54) The complex, interwoven network formed by contributions from the ventral rami of neighboring spinal nerves is termed a(n)

A) dermatome.

B) autonomic nerve.

C) lateral nerve.

D) tract.

E) plexus.

E) plexus.

49

55) Each of the following nerves originates in the lumbar plexus except the ________ nerve.

A) saphenous

B) sciatic

C) femoral

D) obturator

E) genitofemoral

B) sciatic

50

56) The ________ nerve, which arises in the cervical plexus, innervates the diaphragm.

A) ansa cervicalis

B) lesser occipital

C) radial

D) phrenic

E) sciatic

D) phrenic

51

57) The layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual axons within a peripheral nerve is termed the

A) endoneurium.

B) perineurium.

C) aponeurium.

D) metaneurium.

E) subneurium.

A) endoneurium.

52

58) The ventral rami form four major plexuses, including all of the following except the ________ plexus.

A) brachial

B) lumbar

C) sacral

D) nuchal

E) cervical

D) nuchal

53

59) If a person has a crush injury to the C3-C5 spinal segments, you would expect that he

A) might be unable to breathe on his own.

B) could walk without difficulty.

C) would have full range of motion in all extremities.

D) would be in a coma.

E) would have difficulty chewing and moving the tongue.

A) might be unable to breathe on his own.

54

60) As the ________ nerve approaches the knee, it divides into two branches, the fibular nerve and the tibial nerve.

A) perineal

B) femoral

C) brachial

D) pudendal

E) sciatic

E) sciatic

55

61) Mary is in an automobile accident and suffers a spinal cord injury. She has lost feeling in her lower body. Her doctor tells her that swelling is compressing a portion of her spinal cord. Which part of her cord is likely to be compressed?

A) the anterior gray horns

B) the anterior gray commissures

C) ascending tracts

D) descending tracts

E) the anterior white commissures

C) ascending tracts

56

62) The brachial plexus gives rise to all of the following nerves except the

A) radial.

B) median.

C) ulnar.

D) musculocutaneous.

E) phrenic.

E) phrenic.

57

73) Recognized neuronal circuit patterns include all of the following except

A) convergent.

B) divergent.

C) multipolar.

D) reverberating.

E) parallel processing.

C) multipolar.

58

74) You are sitting at a Mexican restaurant waiting for your food. The waiter brings a very hot plate, telling you to be careful about touching it. You touch it anyway, producing a pain sensation in your fingers, a withdrawal of your hand, and an auditory comment of what you are thinking. This scenario represents a ________ neuronal circuit.

A) parallel

B) reverberation

C) serial

D) convergent

E) consensual

A) parallel

59

75) All of the following are true of neural reflexes except that they

A) are automatic motor responses.

B) are the simplest form of behavior.

C) help preserve homeostasis.

D) cannot be modified by the brain.

E) involve at least two neurons

D) cannot be modified by the brain.

60

76) Reflexes based on synapses formed during development are ________ reflexes.

A) visceral

B) innate

C) acquired

D) somatic

E) vegetative

B) innate

61

77) Reflexes can be classified according to all of the following except

A) their development.

B) where information processing occurs.

C) the motor response.

D) the complexity of the neural circuit.

E) whether they are sensory or motor.

E) whether they are sensory or motor.

62

78) All of the following are true of muscle spindles except that they

A) are found within skeletal muscle.

B) consist of specialized fibers called intrafusal fibers.

C) are found in tendons.

D) are the receptor for the stretch reflex.

E) are innervated by gamma motor neurons.

C) are found in tendons.

63

79) The reflex that prevents a muscle from exerting too much tension is the ________ reflex.

A) stretch

B) tendon

C) flexor

D) crossed extensor

E) reciprocal

B) tendon

64

80) Spinal interneurons inhibit antagonist motor neurons in a process called

A) a crossed extensor reflex.

B) a stretch reflex.

C) a tendon reflex.

D) reciprocal inhibition.

E) reverberating circuits.

D) reciprocal inhibition.

65

81) The ________ reflex complements the flexor reflex by activating contralateral muscles.

A) stretch

B) tendon

C) flexor

D) crossed extensor

E) reciprocal

D) crossed extensor

66

82) The flexor reflex

A) prevents a muscle from overstretching.

B) prevents a muscle from generating damaging tension.

C) moves a limb away from a painful stimulus.

D) usually depends on cranial neurons.

E) is an example of a monosynaptic reflex.

C) moves a limb away from a painful stimulus.

67

83) In which of the following would the delay between stimulus and response be greater?

A) a monosynaptic reflex

B) a polysynaptic reflex

B) a polysynaptic reflex

68

84) Which statement is false regarding reflexes?

A) Reflex responses can change over time.

B) You have no conscious control or modification ability over reflex action.

C) Some reflex responses are hereditary.

D) Reflex responses can be enhanced by repetition.

E) All of the above statements are true; there are no false statements.

B) You have no conscious control or modification ability over reflex action.

69

85) Tina falls while climbing a tree and lands on her back. Her frightened parents take her to the emergency room, where she is examined. Her knee-jerk reflex is normal and she exhibits a plantar reflex (negative Babinski reflex). These results suggest that Tina has

A) injured one of her descending nerve tracts.

B) injured one of her ascending nerve tracts.

C) a spinal injury in the lumbar region.

D) a spinal injury in the cervical region.

E) suffered no damage to her spinal cord.

E) suffered no damage to her spinal cord.

70

86) Which of the following is not true about a positive Babinski reflex?

A) normal in newborns

B) abnormal in adults

C) a sign of injury to descending spinal tracts

D) why you close your eyes when you sneeze

E) flaring of the toes when the sole is stroked

D) why you close your eyes when you sneeze

71

1) The dura mater tapers inferiorly to form the

A) coccygeal ligament.

B) conus medullaris.

C) cauda equine.

D) subarachnoid space.

E) denticulum latum.

A) coccygeal ligament.

72

2) The condition in which a person loses all feeling and movement of the arms and legs due to spinal cord injury is termed

A) paraplegia.

B) hemiplegia.

C) spinal shock.

D) quadriplegia.

E) spinal transection.

D) quadriplegia.

73

3) The loss of feeling and movement of the legs is termed

A) paraplegia.

B) hemiplegia.

C) spinal shock.

D) quadriplegia.

E) spinal transection.

A) paraplegia.

74

4) The ________ separates the dura mater from the walls of the vertebral canal.

A) subdural space

B) subarachnoid space

C) epidural space

D) venous dural sinus

E) central canal

C) epidural space

75

5) The dorsal root contains ________ neurons.

A) sensory

B) motor

C) interneurons

D) efferent

E) unipolar

A) sensory

76

6) Blood vessels traveling within the ________ space deliver oxygen and nutrients to the spinal cord.

A) dura mater

B) central

C) epidural

D) subdural

E) subarachnoid

E) subarachnoid

77

7) During the procedure known as a(n) ________, a needle is inserted into the subarachnoid space in the inferior lumbar region.

A) EEG

B) encephalomyelogram

C) laminectomy

D) lumbar puncture

E) thoracic tap

D) lumbar puncture

78

8) The white ramus and the gray ramus collectively are called the

A) spinal nerve.

B) rami communicantes.

C) meninges.

D) ganglia.

E) ascending tracts.

B) rami communicantes.

79

9) Suppose that you feel something brushing against your abdomen. The sensory information would be carried to the spinal cord over a(n) ________ ramus.

A) dorsal

B) sympathetic

C) lateral

D) ventral

E) ascending

D) ventral

80

10) The specific strip of skin that is innervated by a specific spinal nerve is called a

A) rootlet.

B) ramus.

C) meninx.

D) ganglion.

E) dermatome.

E) dermatome.

81

11) A complex, interwoven network of nerves is called a

A) dermatome.

B) ramus.

C) plexus.

D) ganglion.

E) tracts.

C) plexus.

82

12) The nerve crucial for breathing that originates within the cervical plexus is called the ________ nerve.

A) brachial

B) phrenic

C) intercostal

D) ganglion

E) sciatic

B) phrenic

83

13) In ________, one neuron synapses on several postsynaptic neurons.

A) divergence

B) intercommunication

C) a plexus

D) a pool

E) convergence

A) divergence

84

14) Interneurons are organized into functional groups called

A) neuronal pools.

B) plexi.

C) rami.

D) spindles.

E) perineuria.

A) neuronal pools.

85

15) The neural "wiring" of a single reflex is called a(n)

A) reflex arc.

B) ramus.

C) ganglion.

D) tract.

E) intershoot.

A) reflex arc.

86

16) ________ reflexes activate skeletal muscles.

A) Involuntary

B) Cranial

C) Spinal

D) Autonomic

E) Somatic

E) Somatic

87

17) The most complicated spinal reflexes are called

A) collateral reflex arcs.

B) ipsilateral reflex arcs.

C) intersegmental reflex arcs.

D) dermatomes.

E) spinal plexuses.

C) intersegmental reflex arcs.

88

18) Reflexes that activate muscles on the same side of the body as the stimulus are called

A) contralateral.

B) ipsilateral.

C) commensual.

D) involuntary.

E) parasympathetic.

B) ipsilateral.

89

19) Reflexes that activate muscles on the opposite side of the body as the stimulus are called

A) contralateral.

B) ipsilateral.

C) commensual.

D) involuntary.

E) parasympathetic.

A) contralateral.

90

20) In a(n) ________ reflex, a sensory neuron synapses directly on a motor neuron.

A) monosynaptic

B) ipsilateral

C) commensual

D) involuntary

E) polysynaptic

A) monosynaptic

91

21) A(n) ________ reflex has at least one interneuron placed between the sensory and motor neurons.

A) monosynaptic

B) ipsilateral

C) commensual

D) involuntary

E) polysynaptic

E) polysynaptic